วันพฤหัสบดีที่ 28 ตุลาคม พ.ศ. 2553

Methods That Work (ตอนที่ 1)

(ตอนที่ 1)

Ideas for Literacy and Language Teachers
John W. Oiler, Jr. .

University of New Mexico

Heinle & Heinle Publishers
A Division of Waclsworth, Inc. Boston, Massachusetts.02116 USA

'I had a teacher, once ..."
Mary Knnochiaro, TESOL Address, 1984
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imfc ,M3AJM<..: m. ■uswiuiwaft..*. imilrrw Contents Acknowledgments ix Foreword to die Second Edition xv Chapter 1 Introducing the Second Edition PART 1 SCAFFOLDING IN LANGUAGE TEACHING Chapter 2 Learning a Second Language Through Commands: The Second Field Test James J. Asher, Jo Anne Kusudo, and Rita de la Torre 13 Chapter 3 The Audio-Motor Unit: A Listening Comprehension Strategy that Works Theodore B. Kalivoda, Genette Morain, and Robert J. Elkins 22 : Chapter 4 Total Physical Response: A Technique for Teaching All Skills in Spanish Eileen W. Glisan 30 Chapters The Thunder and Lightning Professor: Teaching Language by Using Theater Plus Up-to-the-Minute Technology Richard M. Bacon {with photographs by Russell Schleipman), Ma Baolin, and Joel D. Goldfield 40 Chapter 6 An Integrated Pragmatic Curriculum: A Spanish Program John W, Oiler and John W. Oiler, Jr. 50 Chapter 7 From Role Play to the Real World Raymond J. Rodrigues and Robert H. White 63 Chapter 8 Why Drama Works: A Psycholinguistic Perspective Susan L. Stern 70 PART 2 IMMERSION AND ELEMENTARY SCHOOL LANGUAGE INSTRUCTION 85 - Chapter 9 Bilingual Education Works Stephen D. Krashen 89 ■■-*'. Chapter 10 Two Languages for All Children: Expanding to Low Achievers and the Handicapped Carolyn Andrade, Richard R. Kretschmer, Jr., and Laura W. Kretschmer 99 i Chapter 11 The FLES Methods Course: The Key to K-12 Certification Jane Tucker Mitchell and Mary Lynn Redmond 113 ' Chapter 12 Methods in Elementary School Foreign Language Teaching Helena Curtain 118 y V Chapter 27 Adjusting Fluency and Grammar Through Repetition 297 Supot Arevart and Paul Nation Chapter 28 Episodes on the Computer 309 Tatsuo Taira Chapter 29 Mapping a Course Over Different Roads: Language Teaching with Special Populations 320 Jack S. Damico and Sandra K. Damico PART 6 SING 'H RAP: GAMES 'N GRAMMAR, DRILLS 'N DRAMA 333 Chapter 30 Pop Songs in Language Teaching 335 Subramaniyan A. Nambiar Chapter 31 An Excerpt from Jazz Chants 339 Carolyn Graham Chapter 32 Pantomime as an L2 Classroom Strategy 342' Paul W. Seaver, Jr. Chapter 33 Once Upon a Time 352 John Morgan and Mario Rinvolucri Chapter 34 Cooperative Learning in a Humanistic English Class S (358 Kanchana Prapphal Chapter 35 Jigsaw Reading 363 Jonathan de Berkeley-Wykes Chapter 36 From Improvisation to Publication Through Drama 368 Charlyn Wessels THE EPILOGUE Chapter 37 Reasons Why Some Methods Work 374 John W. Oiler, Jr. References 387 Index 419 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS F or the second edition of this book, the persons to be thanked are more numer¬ous than for the first. This one owes its existence to tens of thousands of users who made the first edition successful. Therefore, at the very first, on behalf of myself and my coworker on that edition, Dr. Patricia Richard-Amato, I want to thank those users. In addition, I must also thank the Modern Language Association for the honor of the Mildenberger Medal that Pat and I shared in 1984 along with one of our coauthors, Sandra Savignon (who was honored for another book of her own, Communicative Competence: Theory and Classroom Practice, 1983). For my own part, relative to this new edition, there are many people to whom I personally owe a debt of gratitude. Foremost among them is ray former student, collaborator, and distinguished colleague, Dr. Richard-Amato. Her book, Making It Happen: Interaction in the Second language Classroom, according to a survey by Grosse (1991: 39), had surpassed all but two of its competitors and was reported as the main coursebook in more methods courses for ESL teachers than the first edition of Methods That Work. When I first saw Dr. Richard-Amato's manuscript, I knew that it was destined to be a book that language teachers would gladly receive. I was correctly quoted by her publishers as saying that people who Hked Methods That Work would love Making It Happen. While Dr. Richard-Amato is no longer an editor of this volume, her influence is still felt, and I person¬ally want to thank her for the help and inspiration that she has afforded, not only to me as her teacher and friend, but also, I believe, to the profession at large. On a more personal note, I will never forget that it was Pat's idea to dedicate the first edition of Methods That Work to the memory of my Dad, whose Spanish program Pat had studied in a Colorado high school. In addition, I am glad to thank all of the contributors to the first volume, some of whom, sad to say (Tracy Terrell, Robert J. Di Pietro, Caleb Gattegno, and Jonathan de Berkeley Wykes) have died in the interim—a poignant reminder that all of us really are mortal, just as Aristotle noted with special reference to Socrates. With respect to the first edition, I also want to personally thank the reviewers, fel-low teachers, colleagues, students, and all the users who made it one of the most widely used methods books in the history of language teaching. Of them I hope that someone may say in future days, as Mary Finocchiaro told us back in 1984 in her plenary address to the TESOL organization, "I had a teacher once. ..." In IX Paul W. Seaver, Jr. (1992). Pantomime as an L2 classroom strategy. Foreign Language Annals, 25(1), 21-31. The American Forum at 45 John Street, Suite 1200, New York, NY 10038 for: Carolyn Andrade, Richard R. Kretschmer, Jr., and Laura W. Kretschmer (1989). Two languages for all children: Expanding to low achievers and the handicapped. In Kurt E. Miiller (Ed.), Languages in elementary schools (pp. 177-199). New York: The American Forum. The Beijing Review: A Chinese Weekly of News and Views for: Ma Baolin (1987). Teaching language by using theater. Beijing Review, 30(29), i-m. Cambridge University Press for: John Morgan and Mario Rinvolucri (1983). Once upon a time: Using stories in the language classroom (pp. 1-3, 8-12, 18, 36-37). London: Cambridge University, as excerpted and revised. The journal Cross Currents: An International Journal of Language Teaching and Cross-Cultural Communication for: Stephen D. Krashen (1991). Sheltered subject matter teaching. Cross Currents, 28 (Winter), 183-188; Kanchana Prapphal (1991). Cooperative learning in a humanistic English class. Cross Currents, 2S(Summer), 37-40. ERIC and the National Council of Teachers of English for: Robert H. White and Raymond J. Rodrigues (1981). Appendix C: The open language experience, and Appendix D: Sample plan for an open language experience—shopping at the supermarket, in Mainstreaming the Non-English Student (pp. 32-40). Chicago: ERIC (ED 197 382) and NCTE. The journal Language Learning for: Tetsuro Chihara, John W. Oiler, Jr., Kelley Weaver, and Mary Anne Chavez-Oiler (1977). Are cloze items sensitive to constraints across sentences? Language Learning, 27, 63-73. Susan L. Stern (1980). Drama in second language learning from a psycholin- guistic perspective, Language Learning, 30(1), 77-100; Patricia L. Carrell (1984). Evidence of a formal schema in second language comprehension. Language Learning, 34(2), 87-112. The Modern Language Association, the Modern Language Journal, and the University of Wisconsin Press for: J. J. Asher, Jo Anne Kusudo, and Rita de la Torre (1974). Learning a second language through commands: The second field test. Modern Language Journal, 58, 24-32; Maureen Weissenrieder (1987). Listening to the news in Spanish. Modern Language Journal, 72(1), 18-27; Fred Genesee, Naomi E. Holobow, Wallace E. Lambert, and Louise Chartrand (1989). Three elementary school alternatives for learning through a second language. Modern Language Journal, 73(3), 250-263; Yukie Horiba (1990). Narrative comprehension processes: A study of native and non-native readers of Japanese. Modern Language Journal, 74(2), 188-202. The National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education for: Stephen D. Krashen (1991). Bilingual education: A focus on current research. Focus: Occasional Papers in Bilingual Education, Number 3,1-15. XI Arevart, Supot, Policy and Planning Division, Office of the National Primary Education Commission, Ministry of Education, Bangkok, Thailand Asher, James J., Department of Psychology, California State University at San Jose Assinder, Wendy, Australian College of English, Bondi Junction, NSW, Australia Bacon, Richard M., author for Yankee Baolin, Ma, staff correspondent for The Beijing Review Brinton, Donna M., TESL/AppHed Linguistics, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA Carrell, Patricia L., Dean of the Graduate School, University of Akron, Akron, OH Chavez-Oiler, Mary Anne, Director of Testing and Employment, City of Albuquerque, Department of Personnel Chihara, Tetsuro, Department of English, Osaka Jogakuin Junior College, Osaka, Japan Christensen, Ben, Department of Spanish, CSU at San Diego, San Diego, CA Curtain, Helena, Foreign Language Curriculum Specialist, Milwaukee Public Schools, Milwaukee Damico, Jack S., Doris B. Hawthorne Professor of Communicative Disorders, Southwestern Louisiana University, Lafayette Damico, Sandra K-, Department of Communicative Disorders, LSU, Baton Rouge de Berkeley-Wykes, Jonathan, formerly a teacher in Oman, Turkey, deceased de la Torre, Rita, Department of Psychology, California State University at San Jose Elldns, Robert J., Department of Foreign Languages, University of West Virginia, Morgantown Glisan, Eileen W., Department of Spanish and Classical Languages, Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Indiana, PA Goldfield, Joel D., Department of Foreign Languages, Plymouth State College, Plymouth, NH Graham, Carolyn, Department of English, NYU, New York, NY Greenberg, Liza A., Department of Educational Foundations, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque Horiba, Yulde, Asian Languages and Literatures, Amherst, MA Hurtado de Vivas, Romelia, Department of CIMTE, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque Johnson, Helen, Britannia Royal Naval College, Dartmouth, England Kalivoda, Theodore B., Department of Spanish Education, University of Georgia, Athens Krashen, Stephen D., College of Education, University of Southern California Kretschraer, Laura W., Department of Communications, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH Kretschraer, Richard R., Jr., Department of Special Education, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH Kusttdo, Jo Anne, Department of Psychology, California State University at San Jose FOREWORD TO THE SECOND EDITION L ike the first edition, the second volume of Methods That Work is still a book of success stories for language teachers. However, it's not just for language teachers, but for all the teachers in the schools. The reason for the increased scope is that all teachers are bound to find communication a richer challenge in years to come because of the rapid growth of minority language populations around the world (see Scarcella, 1990). Of course, as teachers know, teaching means commu¬nicating effectively—that is, caring for students (Moskowitz, 1978) and sharing a community of knowledge and experience with them (Litde 5c Sanders, 1989). The focus here is often on the teaching of foreign languages, English as a second lan-guage, and curricula for students from minority language backgrounds, but because of the changing demographics in today's world—with minority language students rapidly becoming the majority in many urban settings around the world and especially here in the U.S. (Ortiz & Yates, 1983; Cummins, 1986; Hamayan 5c Damico, 1991; Kagan, 1992)—all content-area teachers will find useful materi¬al in this book. Reading teachers as well as speech-language pathologists are addressed specifically and will find much that is applicable to their work. In addition to being somewhat thicker, the book has also been internation-alized. The present version contains entries not only from the U.S. and Canada, but also from Belgium, Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia, China, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand. In addition, in order to cope with the exponential growth of knowledge, a wider range of topics is covered in this volume than in the previous one. It now includes more information on elementary schools, bilingual education, literacy, schema theory (episodic organization) and grammar, speech-language pathology, special education, and computer technology. I admit that all this is a lot for one book, but I believe teachers in the classrooms will see a greater rele¬vance and coherence in this volume than in any that has been available up till now. The problems dealt with here are fundamentally related and are, I believe, the central core of what education will be about in the twenty-first century. "We are learning, I believe, even as we are being catapulted towards a new century and even a whole new millennium, to value differences more than we used to. At the same time we are growing more aware that education depends on com-munication and on a sense of community (Little &C Sanders, 1989). And all of it XV imon language systems. We must love them in a language that both we and t them and to share with them not only : also what comes from theirs, and we ences. In such a context, a book like in the Foreign Language Class (1978) jnce observed in a talk I heard back in agreed perfectly on everything, one of kowitz would probably point out, even der to be noticed, and even more com-.efore, in the hope of achieving a richer ciation of our differences, as in the is That Work (pp. xi-xii), I will reflect rsation (because it has already become esteemed friend and colleague (Earl of Methods That Work appeared back and commentary on the late Charles 1961, 1976,1983). As I said back then, Sessional family, and for that reason I .) somewhat intimately. For those dear aint or poignant, I will ask them to just ian we should part company so early in either way!) , I still believe that redemption in its ''urran applied as a description of what is too big a job for language learners or "ble view, redemption is still the work everyone else's, being buried, and ris- loved senior colleague Earl Stevick kindly commentary, Humanism in 8), has thoughtfully and appealingly Curran's theological approach, with view than I perceive Curran's holeness (of which wellness, holiness, sirable state to strive for, but if it could nderstood Curran to be suggesting), or the apostle Paul put it, "Christ died for as far as redemption in the profound ■ more confidence in a rough wooden otha some 2,000 years ago (McDowell, Idiers that turned up empty three days "bstraction. Even when it comes to the uage teaching, I want to see the evi- the material world. Therefore, in this rely speculative philosophy in favor of I want to appear here is the kind that any case, this has been my goal. ummins (1981, 1983, 1986,1989) has to help preserve the rich linguistic bring with them as they walk into our classrooms (also see McKay &C Wong, 1988). It is already clear and will become even more so in the next few decades that all the teachers in the schools, more than many of us have been inclined to realize, are, and ought to be, language acquisition specialists and language teachers—over and above whatever else we may be. Therefore, because of the special challenges that lie ahead, I believe that many teachers will value the help that the second edition of Methods That Work offers. There is no doubt that the first edition succeeded because of its emphasis on what works. Even ten years ago, Pat and I predicted that the naysayers would be quick to complain that a book full of success stories was out of touch. They did, but their voices were few and uncertain. They said that language acquisition is laced with mysteries, and, of course, they were right in this much. It is true that our still unanswered questions can be added to, divided into a thousand more, and multiplied to infinity and gone. But merely saying that language acquisition is complex is no theory. Every conceivable aspect of human experience and every bit of the material world is complex, so a theory that merely extols such a multitude of complexities gets nowhere. What we teachers need to know is what works, and we need to know now (cf. Kalivoda et al., Chapter 3). As practitioners, we can't afford the luxury of waiting for someone in some ivory-tower to sort through an endless agenda of theoretical complexities. We can't wait for a distant tomorrow to find out how to do best what has to be done today. As Patricia Richard-Amato and I said in the first edition, we'd have loved to have had Methods That Work in our hands when we set out to become lan-guage teachers. Today I can say with equal conviction that I'd have picked the sec¬ond edition of Methods That Work off any seller's bookshelf in a twinkling, and I'd have been glad to get it into my mind and my heart even more than in my hands. If we look first to cases in which language acquisition—learning to read, to write, to speak, etc.—all actually do occur, particularly where these successes are achieved against the odds and in difficult sociocultural contexts, and if we seek to understand how such things could happen, we will be in an excellent position to formulate a satisfactory understanding (theory) of how they do in fact happen, and even to figure out ways (methods) to make them keep on happening (cf. Richard-Amato, 1988—Making It Happen). I still believe that the experience of teachers is a valid source of evidence concerning what works in classrooms. In fact, I think that the best educational research has to take place in classrooms. I still think that nothing is more practical than a theory tested through a method that works. By the same token, there can be no better theory than the sort that can be shown by some method to actually work in practice, until some other can be shown in practice to work better. In the final analysis, I still agree with Stevick, Krashen, Richard-Amato, and all those others who have said that the classroom can be an optimal setting for language acquisi¬tion. After all, classrooms are real places, and it just ain't so that language acquisi¬tion is necessarily more likely to occur on a noisy bus or in a restaurant than in a classroom. There is no moment in time more real than the present moment, and there is no place more real than the place we are in. Classrooms are real places, and real learning can occur in them. The point of this book is to say that our job can be done. Languages can be taught and learned. Communication is possible. Cross-cultural understanding can be achieved, and teachers can help a great deal to make it happen. The book is still a "smorgasbord," and users are not expected to consume every item on the menu. Readers are invited to make a selection. If there is to be a XVII CHAPTER 1 Introducing the Second Edition EDITOR'S INTRODUCTION T hose who can't wait to sink their teeth into some serious nourishment may want to skip directly to whatever part most appeals to them. Those who like to enjoy a leisurely meal of multiple courses may want to review the menu with us in this chapter before proceeding. This first chapter discusses what appears in this book and why. Chapter 1 gives a definition of "methods that work," but a thoroughgoing theoretical exposition is saved for Chapter 37, which appears at the end of the book. The intention is to put the most comprehensible material first and work up to the more difficult materi¬al. The overall goal is to introduce users to a wide range of programs, principles, curricu¬la, and materials that work. Nobody is expected to consume everything. Users are invited to pick and choose. Throughout the book, but especially in Part 1, the emphasis is on scaffolding—providing learners with information through multiple sensory modalities so they will be able to connect targeted language material successfully with their own expe¬rience (and vice versa, to connect their experience with the targeted language material). Everywhere the emphasis is on making sense of the connection between language forms and meaningful subject matter. This holds for literacy as much as for language teaching in all its aspects. It holds for language arts in the primary language of the students as much as it does for second or foreign language teaching, or for the kinds of therapeutic interventions that speech-language pathologists and special education teachers do. The criteria for inclusion of material in this new edition had to be made more stringent than for the previous one. One reason is that a good deal has been learned in ten years. Owing to results from practice, research, and theory, we really do know more these days about what works and why. We also see some of the connections between acquir¬ing a language and becoming literate, and between normal developments and abnormal ones more clearly now than we did a decade ago. As a result, a lot of good material had to be excluded to keep the length within bounds. But, I suppose, this should not be regretted. We should be glad that there is so much good material to choose from. To have included all that was recommended or offered by various authors would have required several volumes thicker than this one. Of course, there is no guarantee that the absolute best choices have been made, and there is no way to determine what those might be. But the choices on the menu represent my best effort, with a lot of help from many wonderful friends and colleagues around the world. I have tried to select tested methods, pow-erful evidences, and theories that fit the data. THE PRAGMATIC ORIENTATION If anything, the book is more pragmatically orient-ed than before. As Swain and Lapkin (1989: 153) have put it regarding the well-known successes of the Canadian immersion programs, We have learned that grammar should not be taught in isolation from content. But then, neither should content be taught without regard to the language involved. A carefully planned integration of language and content, however, holds promise [italics theirs]. In this book, the stress is on the integration-—con-tent linked with language through meaningful experience in many different ways. The theory of Chapter 1 / Introducing the Second Edition 1 success to a method? Hardly. We'd call it "luck." Dumb luck. Especially if we know that when this cmy hits the ball, it usually goes almost anywhere but the general direction of the flag. But suppose my lucky friend were to say that the reason he made his hole-in-one that day was because he kept silent for exactly six weeks before hitting the ball. Or maybe he'd say it was because of a vigorous lit-tle jig he danced while the ball was hurtling toward the hole. Or what if he said he'd been reincarnated as a golfer while stepping up to the tee? He might have imagined a primal forest and swung the club exactly like some imagined ancestor reaching down after a fallen coconut, naturally. Or he might have done some deep breathing, listened to baroque music on his Walkman for fifteen or twenty minutes, and then visualized himself as a cloud floating directly over the flag. We would be reluctant, I suppose, to regard the silence, the jig, the return to nature, or the out-of-body experience as methods. We might call them coincidences or even superstitions, but not methods. But suppose the golfer were Nancy Lopez and could describe the manner of addressing the ball to provide the right power and follow-through, the precise posi-tioning and management of the wrists, hands, feet, eyes, and head, so as to ensure just the right arc of the swing, contact between the ball and the sweet spot, and the best trajectory from the tee to the flag. And suppose, furthermore, that she could consistently drop the ball within a few feet of the flag on, say, 80 out of a 100 tries. Now that we might call a method. OVERV1EW1NG THE SECOND EDITION In this book a method that works is one that is backed up by sensible theory and consistent with practical evidence. It ought to be redundant to add the clause that works because a method that doesn't work (a failure?) ought not to be called a method at all. It should also be superfluous to say that working methods must be backed up by sensi¬ble theory and consistent practical evidence. Approaches that lack theoretical support ought to be regarded as lucky accidents if they work at all and as unlucky ones if they don't, and methods that lack consistent practical evidence ought to be regarded as hypothetical (i.e., purely theoretical) possibilities. Here, as in the previous edition, the term methods is deliberately applied to whatever is involved in bringing to life the connection between language and experience. It includes programs, curricula, procedures, demonstrations, modes of presentation, research findings, tests, manners of interaction, materials, texts, films, videos, comput-ers, and more. Research, some of it, that shows how or why certain methods work is also included, in addition to reports from teachers and students. In Part 1 (and to a great extent throughout the book) we consider how scaffolding can be con-structed to enable learners to understand language forms that are, as Krashen (1981, 1982, 19S5a-c, 1989b) urges in his "input hypothesis," a little beyond the learner's current level of development. For language acquirers, the new target language forms are in a language different from the primary language of the student. For preliterate students, who are just learning to read and write, the target language forms are just the unfamiliar forms of the written language. And for many children of third-world or minority language backgrounds, both problems are confronted simultaneously: these chil¬dren need to acquire literacy, and they need to do it in a language that is also relatively new to them. It turns out that language acquirers do not really have to lift themselves by their bootstraps (as Spolsky, 1985, 19S9, and others feared they might, owing to misinterpretations of Krashen, 1981, 19S2, 1985a-c), but they do need to climb up on a scaffolding (in a different meaning system) so they can reach up to negotiate new forms of the target language (Oiler, 1970, 1988). The scaffold¬ing may be of a sensory-motor type, as in a film or student activity. Or it may involve any sort of other representational medium such as gesture, mime, dramatization, responding to commands, prior knowledge of the content, familiar forms in the target language, etc. Sometimes, owing to translation of target language material into a known language, scaffolding may be provided through that known linguistic system (by translat¬ing the target language forms into the student's primary language), but most likely the scaffolding will consist of some combination of sensory-motor, gestural, and linguistic representations in the target language. Usually, in the language teach¬ing programs that achieve the greatest degree of success, the native language is diligently avoided in Chapter 1 / Introducing the Second Edition 3 all. Harlan Lane (1964) called "sub-" approaches the "sunburn'" or "lan-" methods. He pointed out that ople in target language forms doesn't ccomplish very much toward teaching derstand and speak that language, to language teaching that have stu-g and mouthing utterances in the tar-e without necessarily understanding e trying to teach math by getting stu-numbers and equations or by hav-isten to others performing such if the students write the numbers equations out loud, they're not doing . What is missing is the sort of reason-prehension—that would articulately target language forms (or numbers ns, if you like) with some meaningful connecting, the pragmatic linking of age forms with the actual experience it, is the part that cannot be left out. , the key to the success of all immer-ograms (Parts 2 and 3) is the Integra-target language forms with content. ', as we will see in Part 4, even chil-rely oppressed minority-language situ-Aborigines in Australia and the Hill ailand) can acquire both literacy and a :e at the same time. In fact, contrary to "ulative theorizing about why such a be impossible, it really is possible for ow-achievers to acquire a target lan-they are also learning to read it. How le? The answer is scaffolding (Part 1). - on a scaffold effectively makes us we were. It extends our reach. All be characterized as providing stu-means to create and use appropriate fact, human beings are able to benefit le kinds of scaffolding all at the same some have argued for top-down pro-others for bottom-up, it is abundantly nguage users, even in early stages of normally benefit not only from top-ottom-up processing, but that we also , bottom, and sides against the middle "ly. Or, putting the whole equation in theory in Chapter 37, we are able to ariety of semiotic (meaningful) forms to solve comprehension problems. We are often able, for instance, to translate what we see into gestures and linguistic forms (heard and/or spoken and/or read and/or written) while at the same time achieving a deeper level of conceptual understanding of what we see (Jackendoff, 1987). In fact, every form of comprehension is ulti¬mately dependent on the articulate mapping of representations of different kinds into each other as we relate them all the while to our experience (Peirce, 1868; Einstein, 1936, 1941, 1944; Oiler, 1989). The backbone of experience itself, as is proved logically in Chapter 37, is episodic organi¬zation—the arrangement of facts into the shape of a true narrative. This sort of arrangement comes with certain logical benefits including relative determinacy (meanings that are made relatively certain), connectedness (inferential links of the meanings at hand with other meanings), and gen-eralizability (relevance to a potentially infinite range of possible experiences). All of this is spelled out in detail in Chapter 37 and is amply evidenced in Part 4. Part 5 includes a miscellany of reports about old resources such as newscasts, cooperative learn¬ing, novels, and repetition, and new technologies involving VCR's and computers. It's an old and new idea (Clarke, 1989) to use existing resources rather than trying to do everything ourselves by creating every scrap of material for our classes. Why not use existing media presentations such as newscasts (Weissenrieder, Chapter 23)? Or why not get some help from able students through cooperative learning and peer teaching (Assinder, Chapter 24)? And what about good old grammar? It hasn't been forgotten. Johnson (Chapter 25) helps us see how to "defossilize" students with ter¬minal "intermediate-itis." Or, to achieve a rich episodic connectedness between the language of one lesson and the next, how about using novels of adventure written at a reasonably low level of difficulty (Christensen, Chapter 26)? Even repeti¬tion (Arevart &c Nation, Chapter 27) helps to improve fluency and accuracy. Episodic organiza¬tion can also, of course, be put to good use in computer-assisted interactions (Taira, Chapter 28). Finally, Part 5 concludes with some ideas about how speech-language pathologies and spe-cial education-type handicaps can be dealt with through the same methods recommended through¬out the book (Damico &c Damico, Chapter 29). Part 6 offers a dessert tray that should tempt many a teacher's palate. Choices range from pop songs, jazz chants, pantomime, storytelling, games and drills to jigsaw reading and drama. Users should not allow themselves to be fooled into thinking that this last section is only fun and games, because in this section there are also some interesting theoretical arguments and some persua¬sive demonstrations of methods that really do work. Seaver, for instance, in Chapter 32, gives a substantial treatment of mime and gesture, and Wessels (Chapter 36) comes very close to summing up the best from all the foregoing chapters. Finally, Chapter 37 caps off the whole argument with a comprehensive theoretical perspective. The intent of that chapter is to say why some methods work so much better than others. NOTES 1 Dr. Dean Brodkey of the College of Education at the University of New Mexico is to be thanked for giv¬ing me a sharp rap on the chin, thus helping me to bite the bullet in postponing the abstract theoretical discus¬sion to the end of the book. Thanks, Dean, from me and, I expect, most of the users of this edition! 2 Special thanks are owed to Gladys Lipton, Else Hamayan, and to the Damicos for pointing out the need to beef up the material for teachers and other educators who work with children in the lower grades. 3 At a Georgetown Round Table meeting in 1978, Einar Haugen quipped that Wallace Lambert, the princi¬pal investigator in that initial immersion experiment, had thus achieved "minor sainthood." Chapter 1 / Introducing the Second Edition than one modality—e.g., seeing, , in general, to make sense of? school? up to levels that would have been helped you to solve one or anoth-prehension problems that cannot be PART 1 SCAFFOLDING IN LANGUAGE TEACHING T o a greater extent than is usually realized (but see Enright &c McCloskey, 1988), in second language teaching and literacy instruction the fundamental objective is to enable students to make the connection between certain language forms and their own experience. Asher's method (Chapter 2), known as Total Physical Response (TPR), makes the connection initially through commands. These are modeled at first by the instructor. Later they will be carried out by the students along with the instructor and then by the students without modeling by the instructor. Of course, Asher is among the first to admit that TPR works best at the beginning. It is a way to get the fledgling student up and flying. After that, the sky is the limit. TPR is not the end of anything. It is Just one of the best starting points that has ever been discovered. The proof that the target language forms have been comprehended, in the beginning stages of language instruction, is that the students can perform what is required by the commands. Because Asher's TPR method is so simple, it has been criticized, plenty. For instance, one of the world's leading authorities on the psychology of language teaching and testing, John B. Carroll, complained that the TPR approach is limited merely to commands (Carroll, 1970). But to argue this is to fail to see the natural connections between "Jump!" "The teacher said, 'Jump!'" "She said to jump." "I jumped when the teacher said, 'Jump!"' "Jane and I jumped when the teacher said to jump." "The whole class jumped when the teacher told us to." "We jumped because the teacher said to." "When the teacher tells us to jump, we will all jump." "Watch the teacher, and when she says to jump, just do what I do." "If the teacher should say anything, like maybe 'Jump!' for instance? Whatever I do, you do. Okay?" Etc., etc., ad infinitwn. The research shows that even Imagining carrying out commands in one's native language produces a substantial amount of recall (47% of 35 commands in a study by Lieberman &C Altschul, 1971). Seeing the commands executed yields higher recall (53%). And performing the commands gets even better results (62%). But critics who fail to see the relatedness between a command such as "Jump!" and declaratives such as "I will jump" or "She said to jump" or questions such as "What did you say?" "Are you talking to me?" "Let me see if I've got this straight: You want ME to jump?"—those same critics are also apt to fail to see that memory and learning are intimately connected. To them it will seem odd to say that what helps us remember a series of commands in our native language may help us even PART 1 / Scaffolding in Language Teaching 7 ond of it. I smile to think of the teacher in the Kalivoda, Morain, and Elkins study (Chapter 3} who thought he might "look foolish" doing an "audio-motor" mini-drama by pretending to take an onion out of a refrigerator drawn on the black-board. I expect he might have died straight away if someone had suggested he ought to try "The Rassias Madness." Even John Rassias admits that his style is not for everyone, but I don't think there is a teacher alive who could not benefit from the uninhibited, peerless joie de vivre that is spelled R-A-S-S-I-A-S. But there is another reason, beyond humor and entertainment, that I wanted the "thunder and lightning" professor in this book. I think he is right when he urges students to try to sound like they're speaking French when they speak French (though he once bit his own French teacher for depressing his tongue to get him to produce a French sounding r; cf. Wolkomir, 1380). Surface form and grammar, as Rassias has correctly insisted all along, real¬ly do count for something, and they do deserve serious attention and concerted effort in the language classroom. It's fine to say with a wave of the hand that stu¬dents will just naturally overcome their pidginized versions of the target language, but the research shows (see Pans 2 and 3) that we calibrate our expectations for our Italian (or whatever language) according to what we need to accomplish in communication (see Johnson, Chapter 25). The unparalleled brilliance of "The Rassias Method" is to get students to aim a great deal higher than the run-of-the-mill foreign language course that serves up a couple of tacos, teaches students the words to "Las Mananitas," and dubs them "bilingual." Rassias makes sense. He gets his students to make the meaning connection through dramatic contortions that frighten the pants off most language teachers, and then he gets them to act and sound like people who really speak French, or Italian, or whatever. And, by the way, his method works (cf. Byrd, 1980; Johnston, 1980, 1983; Stansfield & Homer, 1987; Lein, 1992). Even the Dartmouth-based journal of the Rassias method, The Ram's Horn, suggests its vitality: The editors say on the title page that just as "the long blasts of the ram's horn blew down the walls of Jericho" (before Joshua's advancing army), the pur-pose of the journal of the Rassias Foundation is "to blow down the walls of inhibi-tion, to go beyond boundaries and restrictions—toward a new understanding of human communication." Or as Rassias was quoted by Robert "Wolkomir as saying (1980: 100), "We want to aim some big educational ray guns at these stupid lan-guage barriers and vaporize them, poof!" Abora, querido amlgo o amiga (si es posible tutearte), quiero cambiar la ropa de la lengua para decirte una cosa. Race tnucbos anos que decidi hacerme profesor de lenguas. Por una parts era porque me di cuenta que el apellido «Oller» era de Cataluna. Supe tambien qtie'mis antepasados vinieron de alia y que soy espariol (o sea Catalan). Si, es verdad. Por eso quisiera aprender la lengua natal de mis antepasados por el lado de mi papa. Y por otra parte quisiera hacerme mae¬stro de espanol porque esa fue la carrera de mi padre. At any rate, that's the way I began my pilgrimage as a language student and, later, a language teacher, more years ago than I'd like to admit. And, all of that, is just part of the reason I include Chapter 6, which I coauthored with my Dad. Another reason is that I want lan¬guage teachers who use this book to realize that I am one of them. Ever since Tillie C'de Baca, my fifth-grade teacher in Las Vegas, New Mexico, pointed out that acquiring another language was like opening a new window through which to see the world, I have known what I would do. Or, as John Rassias put it to Pierre ,..,., ■^,M)^.:;N-.i5 701959 TLM.AM A^T1 PART 1 /Scaffolding in Language Teaching 9 side world. They are able to benefit raore fully from the sheltered environment afforded to them by the classroom. Another benefit of Stern's contribution is to show the natural connection of many of the methods discussed in other chapters of Part 1 and throughout the book to language-related disabilities such as various forms of aphasia, dyslexia, and other disorders. Looking ahead, we may note that Damico and Damico (Chapter 29) return to this topic and show why and how many of the methods that work with normal students can also be used to good advantage with persons traditionally designated as "language disordered1' or "learning disabled." PART 1 / Scaffolding In Language Teaching 11 CHAPTER 2 Learning a Second Language Through Commands: The Second Field Test James J. Asher, Jo Anne Kusudo, and Rita de la Torre EDITOR'S INTRODUCTION J mperative drills in a target language consist of commands issued and/or modeled by an instructor and then carried out by students. The emphasis is on comprehension first as demonstrated and established in appropriate active responses, moving eventually through a series of gentle steps at the student's own pace into productive control of the language. 'Participating in such drills ensures the successful linking of utterances in the target lan-guage with the student's own experience. The whole person gets into the act. First, there is the auditory stimulus accompanied by a demonstrated action. The input is always at least partly comprehended on the first presentation because the student can see what the instructor is doing as well as hear the command. Later, the student demonstrates compre-hension by carrying out the command. The sensory-motor accompaniments of such responsive actions provide a whole fabric of meaningful experience into which the utter-ances of the target language are woven. Unlike many methods that jump right into speak-ing, Asher's approach, also known as the Total Physical Response or TPR, provides a listening period during which the student is not expected to produce any utterances in the target language. Asher and his collaborators contend that contrary to the claims of certain critics, the transition from TPR drills into the full scope of target language functions can be effected smoothly. They demonstrate here (and see also Chapter 3 by Kalivoda et al. and Chapter 4 by GUsan) that the TPR method is not limited to the teaching of impera¬tives, as some critics had contended. The starting point is simple, and the principle is com-prehensible, but this does not mean for a second that it cannot embrace the full complexities of natural language systems. On the contrary, it can be proved logically that imperatives are inevitably connected with all the natural complexities of language sys¬tems. What is more, Asher's method works, and we know why (cf. Chapter 37). Figure 2,1 on page 12 is a still picture from a doc-umentary film1 produced in 1964 that showed the complexity of Japanese understood by American children after 20 minutes of training.2 The instruc-tional strategy was based on asking the students to be silent, listen carefully to a command in Japanese, then act immediately. The approach was called the learning strategy of the "total physical response." Since that time, the effectiveness of commands to achieve listening skill in a second language has been confirmed in a series of experimental studies in Russian, Japanese, French, Spanish, and German.3 The imperative drill can be traced back to 1925, when Harold E. and Dorothee Palmer (1970) observed that physically responding to ver¬bal stimuli is "one of the simplest and most primi¬tive forms of stimulus and reaction in the whole range of speech-activities" (p. 38). This may be the first pattern of responses by the young child to language uttered by his mother. For example, Chapter 2 / Learning a Second Language Through Commands 13 FIGURE 2.1 ical response, and the audiomotor for-iuction is delayed until listening compre-is been developed to a considerable extent Dmmands by the instructor. In the silent : is an immediate switch from listening to i, and from the beginning an attempt is fine tune" the student's pronunciation, few learning trials, physically responding nds seems to produce long-term memo-ihenomenon can be generalized beyond mguage learning because it has been Lt even in one's native language, respond-nmands has an impact on retention. For Lieberman and Altschul (1971) conduct-r in which a list of 35 simple commands itand on one foot, fold your arms, and hands on your hips) were played on a rder to groups of college students. One = 50) was instructed to close their eyes, d imagine themselves performing the Is. Another group (N = 53) watched a rform, and still a third group {N = 46) 1 when they heard the commands, the list of commands was played, each ad 5 minutes to write the commands he could recall. The recall of each group was signifi¬cantly different. The one-way analysis of variance yielded an F of 25.6 (p < .01). Specifically, the mean recall for the "imagine" group was 47 per¬cent (SD = 12 percent); for the "see" group, the mean was 53 percent (SD = 10 percent); and the group that performed the commands had a mean recall of 62 percent (SD = 8 percent). The study by Lieberman and Altschul demon¬strated short-term memory for commands. James H. Humphrey of the University of Maryland showed in 1972 that even 3 months after science concepts were learned through motor activities, the mean recall of the experimental group was 73 percent (SD = 6 percent) and the control was 50 percent (SD = 5 percent), which yielded a matched group t of 4.33 with di = 9 (p < .01). Humphrey published studies (1960, 1962, 1965, 1967, 1968, 1970) which indicated that a learning format based on motor activity by children enhanced the assimilation of a wide range of academic concepts and skills.4 After viewing the motion picture of children learning a sample of Japanese, many FL teachers have commented, "Commands are fine, but what happens next? How does the student learn other linguistic features such as the verb tenses, function words, and especially abstractions, which are diffi¬cult to manipulate, such as, for instance, 'honor,' 'justice,' and 'government'? How does the student make the transition from the physical and action-oriented imperative to linguistic features that seem to be nonphysical?" In an effort to answer these important ques¬tions, experimental training programs have been developed with the intention of exploring three questions: 1. Can the entire linguistic code of the target lan¬guage be learned with a format in which the students physically respond to commands? 2. Can listening fluency for the target language be achieved without using the student's native language? 3. Will there be a large amount of positive trans¬fer of learning from listening comprehension to other skills such as speaking, reading, and writing? This transfer should vary depending upon the fit between orthography and phonol¬ogy. In Spanish, for instance, there should be a large amount of positive transfer because Spanish utterances are written the way they sound. Since the independent variable was long-term training with a complex instructional program, there was not the experimental control that is possible with a laboratory problem such as eyelid conditioning. Our research strategy has been to explore the parameters of the complex instruc¬tional program in a series of field tests. By trying the program in a range of situations which included different languages, different age groups, and different instructors, the expectation was that the instructional format would consistently pro¬duce significant gains in learning. The intent was to move by successive approximations in which each field test was better controlled than the pre¬vious one. THE FIRST FIELD TEST The first field test was reported by Asher in the March 1972 issue of The Modern Language Journal. Adults between the ages of 30 and 60 experienced about 32 hours of training in German with an instructor who used commands to achieve listening comprehension. First, we found that most grammatical fea¬tures of German could be nested into the impera¬tive form. "With imagination, almost any aspect of the linguistic code for the target language could be communicated using commands. For example, the future tense can be embedded into a command such as, "When Luke walks to the window, Marie will write Luke's name on the blackboard!" The past tense can be incorporated into the command structure. For instance, say: "Abner, run to the blackboard!" After Abner has completed the action, say: "Josephine, if Abner ran to the black¬board, run after him and hit him with your book." As to the present tense these were nested in the imperative —for instance, "When Luke walks to the window, Mary will write Luke's name on the blackboard!" Our second finding was that basic listening fluency could be achieved in German without using the students' native language. For certain abstractions however, the German was written on Chapter 2 / Learning a Second Language Through Commands 15 -term memory, (2) long-term memory, he ability to transpose linguistic elements rehend novelty (Asher, 1965, 1966, ?69b; and Kunihira & Asher, 1965). retically, if the student can internalize lis- mprehension of a second language, he or more gracefully make the transition to )n, reading, and writing. If this transition | pted too abruptly or too prematurely, I e individual student is ready, learning dif- 1 an be expected. 1 ;tening comprehension is internalized, the | tiould eventually progress to the "naming 1 arroll, 1964), in which the student is able J testions such as, "What's that?" "What's I ed?" and "What does it mean?" The 1 t feature of the naming stage is not that 1 tit can ask questions but that he or she is I omprehend and internalize the inforraa- j ved from the answers. | misconception (Carroll, 1970) is that guage is synchronized with movements of the semantic content is limited to certain physical activity such as jumping, run- 1 sitting. This is a literal interpretation | >es not accurately represent the parame- \
;tructional possibilities. I
Lave found that with a creative applica- :! physical vocabulary items and nonphysi- ; ural features can be embedded in motor . Consider, as an illustration, these com-
pick up the picture of the ugly old man c it next ro the picture of the government r!
r, find the picture of the beautiful woman
;en eyes, long black hair and wearing a sun
: has red stripes. "When you find the picture, j
to the class and describe the woman!
duate college, students, mostly psycholo-;, enrolled in an experimental course for thout prior training in Spanish. The stu-

dents (N = 27) received college credit for attending the class 3 hours one evening per week for two consecutive semesters.
When each experimental-course student was given the long form of the Modern Language Aptitude Test (MLAT), the mean was 114.4 with a standard deviation of 31.3. These students on the average were quite similar to the average language - aptirude of college men and women reported in the MLAT test manual. After testing, the subjects were divided randomly into two separate groups that met on a different evening once each week.
Unfortunately, because of time limitations, no pretests were administered to the control groups. An ideal procedure would be to use standardized pretests with established norms for all groups so that baselines can be determined for prior lan-guage skills and aptitude.
Listening Training
The students sat in a semicircle around the instructot. The students adjacent to her were asked to be silent, listen carefully to each com¬mand in Spanish, and do exactly what the instruc¬tor did. The students were encouraged to respond rapidly without hesitation and to make a distinct, robust response with their bodies. For example, if the command was "Corran!" the students were to run with gusto. A distinct response was an unam¬biguous signal that the student understood the command. Then the first routine was commands in Spanish such as, "Stand up! Walk! Stop! Turn! Walk! Stop! Turn! Sit down!"
The instructor spoke the commands and acted together with two students on either side of her. This routine was repeated for three of four times until individual students indicated that they were ready to try it alone without the instructor as a model. Each repetition of the routine was not an exact duplication because we did not want memo¬rization of a fixed sequence of behavior. One vari-ation was, for instance: Stand up! Sit down! Stand up! Sit down! Stand up! Walk! Stop! Turn! Walk! Stop! Turn! Walk! Stop! Turn! Walk! Stop! Turn! Sit down!
The next step was to invite other members of the group to perform individually. Experiments have shown (Asher, 1969a) that students can observe a model act, but for long-term memory, each student should then perform alone.

In the next routine, the commands were expanded to: Walk to the door! Walk to the win¬dow! Walk to the table! Then "point" and "touch" were introduced. At this juncture in train¬ing, the students had enough elements so that con¬stituents could be recombined to move the student with unexpected novel commands as: Eugene, stand up, walk to Claudine and touch her. Claudine walk to Norman, and touch his chair.
In manipulating the individual student, Spanish utterances were constantly recombined to present surprises and novelty, which delighted the students because they realized that they usually had perfect understanding for Spanish utterances they had never heard before. As training progressed, the instructor used playful, zany, and bizarre com¬mands that maintained an extremely high interest level in students. Here are rhree samples:
When Henry runs to the blackboard and draws a funny picture of Molly, Molly will throw her purse at Henry.
Henry, would you prefer to serve a cold drink to Molly, or would you rather have Eugene kick you in the leg?
Rosemary, dance with Samuel, and stick your tongue out at Hilda. Hilda, run to Rosemary, hit her on the arm, pull her to her chair and you dance with Samuel!
After about 10 hours of training in listening comprehension, the studenrs were invited but not pressured ro reverse roles wirh the instructor. Those students who felt ready to try speaking uttered commands in Spanish to the instructor, who performed as directed by the students.
From this time on, about 20 percent of class time was role reversal, in which the students spoke Spanish to move the instructor or peers, and later on there were skits created by the students and performed in Spanish, and still later in training there was problem solving in which students, pre¬sented with an unexpected difficulty while in a Latin country, had to talk their way through ro a solution.5
Reading and Writing
There was no sysrematic training in reading and writing. For a few minutes at the end of each

Chapter 2 / Learning a Second Language Through Commands 17

None of the students had heard, during the exact utterances in the stories. :r listening to a story, each student 1 10 true-false statements about the story ■ibed in the March 1972 issue of The Language Journal (Asher, 1972 ). The lis-easure for a set of stories was followed by the stories in a printed booklet and ,g the identical true-false questions.
rn'mg and Readins Skill for Stories
, as may be seen in Table 2.1, the experi-roup with about 45 hours of training and :work assignments had a keener level of skill for stories than high school students >ut 200 hours of classroom training not ; homework (The t of 2.66 was significant he .01 level for 39 df.) nd, in listening skill for stories the experi-roup vastly outperformed college students re completing their first semester in which was about 75 hours of classroom Dn not including homework. (As seen in I, the t of 6.75 was significant beyond the :1 for 69 df.) Surprisingly, the experimen-

TABLE 2.3 The Experimental Group with 45 Hours of Training Compared with Control Group III (College Students Who Had 150 Hours of Training)—Total Score for Four Stories

—— Mean Standard Deviation r
Experimental Group Control III Experimental Group Control III
Listening Reading (n = 27) 34.00
(n=21) 34.86 (rt = 28) 29.57
(n=28) 35.29 3.96 1.75 6.11 3.24 3.21 0.60 .005 NS
TABLE 2.4 The Factor of Transitiv'rty- -Total Score for Four Stories
Mean Standard Deviation t
Control II Control III Control I! Control 111
Listening Readins 27.25 33.09 29.57 35.29 4.65 2.66 6.11 3.24 1.72 3.01 .05 .005
Control II - Collese Students (n = 44) in Control Group II with 75 hours of instruction Control III -College Students (n- 28) in Control Group III with 150 hours of instruction

I 45 Hours of Training Compared with .! Students Who Had 200 Hours of hension of Stories 1 and 2
i Standard Deviation t p
2.15 3.37
I 45 Hours of Training Compared with jdents Who Had 75 Hours of Training)—

Standard Deviation t
Experimental Group Control II
1.75 4.65 2.66 6.55 3.22 .001 .005

tal subjects also excelled in reading skills for sto¬ries. (The t of 3.22 was significant beyond the .001 level for 63 df.)
The third finding was rather extraordinary. The experimental group had a higher level of lis¬tening skill for stories than students finishing the second semester of Spanish, which is 150 hours of classroom instruction not including homework. (As seen in Table 2.3, the t of 3.21 was significant beyond the .01 level for 53 df.) It was also surpris¬ing that the reading skill of the second semester students did not surpass the experimental group. (The t of 0.60 was not significant for 47 df.)
The Transitivity Factor
It may be argued that an artifact of measurement accounts for the striking differences between groups. Since the stories were developed especial¬ly for this project, there may have been an unin-tentional bias in favor of the experimental training.
One test of the bias hypothesis is to compare the beginning and advanced college students for

transitivity. For instance, if the stories were a rea¬sonable measure, the second semester college stu¬dents should perform with higher listening and reading skill than first semester college students. Table 2.4 confirms transitivity, since the advanced students performed significantly better in both lis¬tening and reading.
Standard Proficiency Tests
Midway through training, the experimental group took the Pimsleur Spanish Proficiency Tests—Form A (first level). Since the Pimsleur tests were designed for students in the typical audio-lin¬gual program, they may underestimate the skills acquired by the experimental subjects.
As seen in Table 2.5, the average student per¬formance in the experimental group was the 70th percentile rank for listening, the 85th percentile rank for reading, and the 76th percentile rank for writing. Speaking skill is assessed on the Pimsleur in three categories of "good," "fair," and "poor." The average student in the experimental group was in the "good" category.

Chapter 2 / Learning a Second Language Through Commands 19

inologic, morphologic, and syntactic features in ■ rget language. Future plans call for experimental training in eh the student can internalize chunks of lan-ee with body movements and fine-tune in a progression of decision making with pictures.
1 Information on the availability of the three motjon.picture films mentioned in this chapter may be Obtained from James J. Ashcr, Psychology Department, Sanjose State University, San Jose, California 95192.
2 The research here was performed under a con-tract with the United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Office of Education, under PL85-964, title VI, Section 602, as amended.
Mean and Median Percentile Rank of Experimental Subjects on the Pimsleur Spanish Proficiency Tests Form C (Second Level)

n Mean Median
16 49 55
16 69 66
17 67 60
3 17 Fair* Goodb
3re of 66 bRaw score of 68
yond the 65th percentile for level II. The are even more significant when one consid-t the total time in training was about one-2 instructional hours usually allocated for instruction in levels I and II.
ure Plans
ien language input is organized to synchro-th the student's body movement, the second ;e can be internalized in chunks rather than y word. The chunking phenomenon means ipid assimilation of a cognitive map about niistic code of the target language. As the internalized, it acts as an "advanced orga-to facilitate the storage of information as, ance, in the naming stage when the student to ask questions (i.e., "What is that ').
: movement of the body seems to be a pow-.ediator for the understanding, organiza-id storage of macro-details of linguistic .anguage can be internalized in chunks, but e strategies must be developed for fine-tun-licro-details.
s way to achieve this fine-tuning is to use a ' developed by Winitz and Reeds (1973a at the University of Missouri in Kansas the Winitz-Reeds approach, the individual views four pictures at a time and is direct-le target language to make a choice—for e, select the picture of "the men" from these possibilities: a man, a boy, women, i.
i step-by-step progression through hun-f picture sets, the student is fine-tuned for

3 The references are as follows: Russian (Asher 1965, 1966, 1969a; Asher &c Price 1967; Postovsky 1974, 1975, 1977), Japanese (Asher 1964; Kunihira 5c Asher 1965; Kanoi 1970), French (Mear 1969, Pimsleur 1972), Spanish (Kalivoda, Morain, & Elkins, Chapter 3), and German (Asher 1972).
4 Also see the work of Bryant J. Cratty (1966, 1967, 1969, 1970) and a book by George O. Cureton (1973), in which motor learning was used to teach beginning reading to inner-city students.
5 Here are three sample problems: (1) You are tak¬ing a shower in your hotel bathroom, and a repairman has just come in the bathroom to fix the light. (2) You have just knocked on the door of the hotel room next door to complain about loud singing and dancing that is keeping you from sleeping. (3) You have a toothache and it is necessary to extract the tooth, but you want ro explain to the dentist that you are allergic to drugs used in local anesthetics.
1. John Carroll once objected that TPR is limited to actions such as jumping. How can we use TPR to teach tenses, declaratives, questions, and the connections that run through a story line?
2. If students do link target utterances with their experience during a listening period, what kinds of skills and knowledge will remain to be developed through practice in speech production?
3. How can TPR be integrated with and enriched by other approaches?

Chapter 2 / Learnins a Second Language Through Commands 21

t: A Listening yy that Works
L, and Robert J. Elkins
r (Chapter 2) with a couple of dif-d sequence" (also see Oiler, Sr. & ike greater advantage of the prior hole sequences of events in their of Kalivoda, Morain, and Elkins mewhat like a stage director. The ■ teacher) says to do. The series of if even more distinct actions that the teacher can invite students to tg other actors what to do as they ~>w how vocabulary is naturally '■nd how to incorporate subtleties s to the students, e.g., how to eat in French, Spanish, and German, Language, or, in any language? 'e and confirm Asher's claims for ng. Those teachers who were not acting the drama drills tended to is difficult to see how any foreign vities recommended by Kalivoda, say "Don'tsmack your lips'." in the foreign language to tell their •uage that they teach? Come on.
hers who are searching for a way to students' listening skills may want to :e the "audio-motor" unit, a supplemen¬ts that seems to "work." Simply, it is a minute activity designed to develop the skill (audio-) by requiring an immediate ■esponse [motor).
s J. Asher (1969b) has pioneered research ia of listening skill coupled with physical

activity- He attributes the current failure to pro¬duce students fluent in the language to the fact that most language teaching is multiple in dimen-
jon involving the simultaneous presentation of
different skills. Asher advocates a change to "serial learning" of the four skills, with "listening fluen¬cy" the first to be acquired. His experiments with the "total physical response technique," which combines listening with enacting, showed that stu¬dents who learned by this strategy were superior in retention of the foreign languages to those of con¬trol groups.
However, Asher's "total physical response technique" is conceived as the sole learning activi¬ty for an extended period. Its use in the classroom would require a radical restructuring of the first-level language program and would render obsolete many of the materials now in use across the land. In addition, those students who leave the program after one year would have little or no contact with speaking, reading, and writing skills. Furthermore, it is questionable whether a unidimensional approach could be satisfying to students for an extended period of time.
The audio-motor unit described in this paper is indebted to Asher's work but varies markedly in approach. It is designed as a supplementary, not an exclusive, learning activity, and thus is immediately applicable to any classroom. It provides one answer to Wilga M. Rivers' call in 1966 for increased use of listening comprehension materials at regular intervals in the language learning program.
The average length of the audio-motor unit is 10 minutes. This may be shortened or extended as class needs change from day to day.
To begin the unit, the teacher walks to a tape recorder and activates the voice of a native speak¬er. The voice, speaking at a comfortable speed that retains natural rhythm and intonation patterns, gives a series of some 20 commands, structured around a central theme.
The teacher acts out the appropriate responses to the commands, making use of gesture, pan¬tomime, and facial expression. Sometimes a simple

prop (a billfold, an eraser, an apple) may be used to illustrate meaning. The students listen to the tape and observe the actions of the teacher.
An audio-motor unit involving activities in the kitchen might include the following fragment. (The imaginary drawer might be one which has been sketched on the blackboard. The onion, knife, and spoon may also be sketched for the teacher to "pick off" the board on command.)
Tape: Open the drawer. (Teacher pulls out
imaginary drawer.) Tape: Take out a knife. (Teacher
pantomimes.) Tape: Place the onion on the table.
(Pantomime) Tape: Chop the onion. (Pantomime) Tape: Your eyes are watering. Wipe them.
(Pantomime) Tape: Add the onion to the stew.
(Pantomime) Tape: Pick up the spoon. (Pantomime) Tape: Stir the stew. (Pantomime) Tape: Take a spoonful. Blow on it.
(Pantomime) Tape: Taste it. (Pantomime) Tape: It's good. Smack your lips.
Childish? Maybe. But how many students (and teachers for that matter) know how to say: "Your eyes are watering," "Blow on it," "Taste it," and "Smack your lips"? Teachers should not misinterpret the purpose behind such commands. It is recognized that the student may never be in a situation where he or she will give the direct com¬mand, "Smack your lips." He or she may, howev¬er, eventually encounter such forms as "Don't smack your lips"' or "He smacked his lips." The value of the command, then, lies in learning the vocabulary and in the transfer to other situations.
When the taped lesson is finished (2 to 3 min¬utes), the teacher replays it. This time he invites the students to join him in acting out the appropri¬ate responses. If the activity does not require extensive movement, all students participate simul-taneously, standing in the aisle by their desks. If a great deal of action is called for, the teacher may designate several students to represent the class, although once the class acquires the feel of pan-

Chapter 3 / The Audio Motor Unit 23

crity. There is no limit to the imaginative :hey seem willing to accept—as long as it lin the normal scope of experience. A les-"How to Wind the Maypole" would lack ■ance that today's students demand.
lary Acquisition
igualists once minimized the importance of iry learning in the early stages of language 'alid though their urgings may have been, ents were left with a rather pallid lexicon, ew the equivalent of "book," "window," "sweater," and "record." They could "go," "take a walk," "play tennis," and "drive a t in a world where involvement means per-an many levels, this is not enough. It is a n of culture to strip the physical and emo-ntent from language learning, audio-motor unit can teach recognition of pply of nouns in the affective domain: the ie sigh, the giggle, the guffaw, the shrug, :, the frown. It can provide a powerhouse to be assimilated with vigor and humor, no reason to limit today's bright students ding up" and "sitting down." They also wince, twist, squat, lurch, spit, stoop, and rhe audio-motor unit is an exceptionally way to teach kinesics. By presenting the ary of movement and emotion, it can fe to an anemic lexicon.
of Materials
structuring of the audio-motor units pro-reentry of materials at regular intervals, ussion of listening comprehension, Rivers mphasized reentry and suggested that it is when presented through the use of games:
; imaginatively devised give the students mension practice in a situation where inter-eightened by the competitive element... A nutes of listening comprehension games at r intervals, usually at the end of class , will enable the teacher to reintxoduce sys-:aily material which is not currently being i practiced. In this way, retention of mater-m earlier lessons will be constantly rein-by active recapitulation without tedium.

The audio-motor unit provides a palatable ■"—11 of reentry in which physical involvement and Sc spirit of competition reinforce the learning experience.
Cultural Concepts
Audio-motor lessons have the advantage of link¬ing culture to language in a way that makes the cultural phenomena immediately obvious. Simply talking about an aspect of culture or looking at pictures that illustrate it cannot provide the learning impact that results from physical involvement.
An example of cultural learning may be seen in the following Spanish lesson:
You are at a restaurant Estas en un restaurante.
Pick up your napkin. Coge la servilleta.
Unfold it. Desdobhla.
Put it on your lap. Ponla sobre las piemas.
Pick up your fork in your Coge el tenedor con la
left hand. mano izquierda.
pick up your knife in your Coge el cuchillo con la
right hand. mano derecha.
Cut a piece of meat. Corta un trozo de came.
Put it in your mouth. Ponlo en la boca.
Chew it. Masricalo.
Swallow it. Tragalo.
Put down your knife and Deja en el plato el
fork. tenedor y el cuchillo.
Leave your hands on the Deja las manos en la
table. mesa.
Pour a glass of wine. Sirvete un vaso de vino.
Take a sip. Bebe un poco.
You want some bread. Quieres pan. Parte un
Break off a piece. trozo.
Eat it. Comelo.
Pick up the bill. Coge la cuenta.
Look at it. Mirala.
Take out your wallet. Saca tu billetera.
Pay the bill. Paga la cuenta.
Leave a tip, Deja una propina.
Leave the restaurant. Sal del restaurante.
At least four significant cultural points are illustrated in this unit, each reinforced through physical enactment:
1. Techniques of eating meat: holding knife and fork in right and left hands, respectively, cut-

ting one piece of meat at a time, lifting the cut piece to the mouth with the fork still in the left hand.
2. Leaving both hands resting lightly on the edge of the table when not in use.
3. Using wine as the common beverage at meal¬time for young people as well as adults.
4. Eating bread by tearing off small pieces from the larger individual portion, instead of biting them off.
These four Spanish eating habits differ markedly from those commonly practiced in the United States and could serve as a springboard for a discussion of cross-cultural differences at a later moment.
Such cultural differences come to light unex¬pectedly in the preparation of audio-motor units. The authors, working French, Spanish, and German to create a unit involving activities in the kitchen, wanted to set up the sequence:
Go to the refrigerator. Open the door.
At this point the German writer suggested that a command was missing. He insisted that "Bend over" should follow immediately after "Go to the refrigerator." His French and Spanish colleagues were mystified, until the resultant discussion brought out the fact that the typical German refrigerator is a low unit which falls far short of the height of an American refrigerator. One must "bend over" to open the door and look inside. Absorbing a tiny fragment of culture such as this may not seem important, but it might prevent an American student from blurting, "Oh, what a funny little refrigerator!" to a sensitive German host.
Variation in Routine
The inclusion of the audio-motor unit within the regular classroom session has another value. It ptovides a salutary relief from the pattern drill and directed dialogue. With instant physical involve-ment, the student "comes alive" in every sense— muscular as well as intellectual.
The nature of the activity ranges from the rela¬tively mild act of entering a phone booth, consult¬ing the directory, and placing a call, to the really

Chapter 3 / The Audio Motor Unit 25

lents ranged from 1 to 6 years of language »ix different audio-motor units, each com-f 20 commands, were presented at the rate init per week. Classes with 1 and 2 years of ;e study participated in the audio-motor laily, allocating the last 10 minutes of the ' this activity. Advanced classes required e or two 10-minute intervals to master the ted unit for any given week. ; teachers who conducted the audio-motor received only the minimal instruction nee-:o ensure similarity of presentation. There discussion concerning possible drawbacks :nefits from such a program. One instructor J be excused from participating, explaining would "feel foolish" during the teacher-ig phase of the unit. A total of eight teach-: part in the audio-motor program.

FIGURE 3-2 Student Questionnaire
1. What was your attitude
' toward this activity at the beginning of the 6 weeks?
2. What was your attitude toward this activity at the end of the 6 weeks?
3. What was your instructor's attitude toward this activity
at the beginning of the 6 weeks?
4. What was your instructor's
attitude toward this activity
at the end of the 6 weeks?

Number of students rating items by categories
Very Somewhat Somewhat Very
positive Positive positive negative Negative negative

end of the six-week period, students were o fill out a questionnaire (see Figure 3.1) heir attitude toward the audio-motor units eginning and at the end of the six weeks, as
ile Female
mewhat Somewhat Very
tositive negative Negative negative

well as their perception of their instructors' atti¬tude at the same intervals. Students were also asked to enumerate their positive and negative crit¬icisms of the audio-motor strategy (see Figure 3.2).
A total of 180 students took part in the study. The response of 90 percent of these (162) students was positive. Neither the sex of the respondent nor the language studied proved to be significant in analyzing the questionnaire results.
Students indicated strongest approval for the following aspects of the audio-motor unit:
1. They felt it increased their language learning in terms of listening comprehension and vocabulary building.
2. They appreciated the change of pace it gave to classroom procedure.
3. They found it stimulating and entertaining.
On the other hand, negative reactions included such comments as, "too easy," "boring," "silly." Nine students expressed dissatisfaction in being unable to see the written form of the commands. Two students indicated a desire to participate oral¬ly in the lesson. It is interesting to note that a total of fifty six students did not list a negative reaction of any kind.
Instructors who had worked with the audio-motor units filled out a different questionnaire,

evaluating their own reaction to the technique, as well as their students' reaction as perceived by the professors. They were also asked to list strengths and weaknesses of the audio-motor strategy. (See Figure 3.3.)
Of the eight teachers involved, six responded with positive reasons. They were principally impressed with four benefits derived from the use of the units:
1. Lexical and structural items and their syn¬tactic arrangements that were being practiced through other classroom activities were reinforced by the physical response lesson. This subjective reaction would tend to uphold Asher's assertion (1969a) that "listening skill seems to have a large positive transfer to reading and writing depending upon the fit between phonology and orthography of a specific language" (p. 4).
2. Cultural learnings illustrated by the lessons and strengthened through physical enactment caused strong interest on the part of students.
3. Although the lessons were designed to facil¬itate development of the listening skill, evidence of their impact on student oral expression was seen in the students' spontaneous use of the commands both in and out of the classroom. Idioms and indi-vidual words seemed to become a part of the stu¬dents' system of expression. Some teachers felt

Chapter 3 / The Audio Motor Unit 27

s/e Female
■mewhat Somewhat Very
losltlve negative Negative negative
um, or advanced larguage ability?
ming? Middle? End? At varying times?

I- ..■■leraHzmg from rhe resu,ts of the question~ "" '' jt should be remembered that participants in this program were not "typical." Students who enroll at the Southeastern Language Center must have at least a B average in prior language study. Furthermore, students who are willing to devote six weeks of summer vacation to intensive lan¬guage study are obviously highly motivated. It should also be kept in mind that participants at the Language Center attend class at least five hours per day. They might be more receptive, therefore, to a 10-minute departure from usual classroom activity than would students whose con¬tact time with a foreign language consists of 50 minutes per day. On the other hand, one might speculate that students with average or lower trades, and students with weak motivation, would be even more responsive to an audio-motor unit than their more favored peers.
It is to be regretted that no controlled attempt was made to evaluate the effect of the audio-motor strategy upon retention. However, instructors did reenter materials from past units at frequent inter¬vals, and reported that student response was high¬ly accurate.
At the conclusion of the six-week period, videotapes were made of the audio-motor units in

action. In an attempt to more nearly approximate the "beginning language" stage, German students were taught a French unit, French students learned Spanish, and Spanish students received instruction in German. The videotapes did capture the sense of concentration, the release that comes with phys¬ical involvement, the spontaneity and the learning satisfaction that characterize the audio-motor technique.
The audio-motor unit as a device for teaching lis¬tening comprehension has met with an over¬whelmingly positive response in a large-scale operation.
Using a visual and an audible stimulus initially to elicit a physical response, this strategy brings sight, hearing, and kinesic participation into inter¬play. Later the visible stimulus is dropped and the student relies only upon the oral command to motivate his or her physical response.
It is suggested that regular use of carefully pre¬pared audio-motor units can provide listening comprehension activities which increase knowl¬edge of lexical and structural items, add dimension to cultural understanding, and enliven the learning situation with zest and humor.


:xpressions for greater communication in ign language.
ections from the teachers who participated udio-motor lessons included two principal is:
ome felt that the exclusion of the written arrowed the benefits to be derived. They the students to read and speak the com-LS well as hear and enact them. )ne would have preferred more explicit :ion to the procedures to be used and a :o meet with other staff members to evalu->rogram at its conclusion.

1. What advantages are offered by drills with a "meaningful sequence" (alias "episodic organization")? For instance, how does such organization help students acquire new vocabulary?
2. One teacher says the activities recommended in this chapter would make him "feel foolish." How might this teacher be helped to become less self-conscious and a more expressive actor?
3. Another teacher says that students should see the imperatives written down as well as hear them and see them acted out, and that students should be required to say and read the commands. What conse¬quences could be expected, and what measurement procedures could be used to assess them?
4. What kinds of reform are needed in foreign language teaching, literacy programs, and education in general to bring about a much higher success rate than we currently see? Why do schools tend to stick with familiar books and materials (e.g., the "Dick and Jane" basals) even when we admit, as Kalivoda, Morain, and Elkins do, that those materials don't work very well?

Chapter 3 / The Audio Motor Unit 29

A Technique for in Spanish
1 and that much additional research about the method confirms that it works well with nearly all children, Vo judging from Kalivoda, Morain, 'oved unsusceptible to the method, ■ are as universal as transitive verbs ■te suggestions about how to extend ■uction. She also gives a good and cessible explanation of some of the ■■ is the observation that with TPR, tructure onto meaning, that is, to null" (p. 33). Moreover, as Asher ; on TPR, Glisan too contends that ng things apart (analysis) is greatly •rehension (synthesis). In fact, both 1/ of pragmatic mapping in Chapter ykes in Chapter 35). Finally, what n is that her guidelines are applica-lirly obvious extensions to literacy greater clarity below.
for speech readiness can result in great ; in terms of both linguistic and affective ment.
al Physical Response, a technique in which s respond physically to oral commands, > an interesting, effective vehicle for apply-theory to the classroom. Yet why isn't the ue a component of most language pro-Why are teachers interested in learning rPR but hesitant to implement it in their ■ms? First, we must allow for the usual lag I dissemination of research findings and ctual application in terms of teaching

oaches. Second, research findings have been jite thorough in describing the first several lessons of TPR, bur they are less than clear in explaining subsequent procedures. Third, propo¬nents have marketed TPR as a strategy for teach-. ^tening comprehension that offers optimal use during the first few weeks of exposure to the language. Fourth, the average teacher feels uncer¬tain about adopting such a heretofore "unortho¬dox" method and fitting it into a conventional language curriculum. Finally, explicit curricular guidelines and teaching materials for utilizing TPR remain to be developed.
The purpose of this paper is to present a strat¬egy for using TPR as one technique for teaching not only listening, but also speaking, reading, and writing in Spanish. It presupposes a teaching methodology based on communicative or func¬tional skill acquisition. A plan is suggested for its implementation within the language curriculum. Specific examples are provided for Spanish, although the guidelines can be applied to the teaching programs of any foreign language.
Studies in Second Language Learning
Recent theories provide a basis for the Total Physical Response Method. Krashen's extensive work with the Input Hypothesis and Monitor Model in second language learning/acquisition has had far-reaching claims for language reaching. According to his theories, learners "acquire7' lan¬guage by being exposed to large quantities of mean¬ingful input. Acquisition provides the means for second-language fluency while conscious rule learn¬ing serves as a "monitor" in editing speech output (Krashen, 1981, 1982; Krashen et al., 1984). Applied to classroom instruction, these claims imply that teachers need to provide maximum opportuni¬ties for students to hear the target language in inter¬esting, real-life, communicative contexts.
Much research has examined the learner's role in attending to language input. Evidence suggests that learners participate in different types of com¬munication at different times during the learning process. Burt and Dulay (1983) maintain that learners begin with "one-way communication" by

listening or reading the target language, progress to "partial two-way communication" by respond¬ing physically or orally in the native language, and finally arrive at "full two-way communication." This typology of learner interaction is similar to the three stages described in Krashen et al. (1984) as "comprehension," "early speech," and "speech emergence." For Terrell (1986), during these first two stages, learners "bind" or mentally associate a new word or form with meaning by reacting in a meaningful and physical manner.
Some experimentation suggests that students exposed to an initial "silent period" during which they respond without being forced to use the tar¬get language, perform better on both listening and speaking tasks than do students required to speak the language from the beginning (Winitz 5c Reeds, 1973b; Postovsky, 1974, 1977; Gary, 1975; Asher, 1972, 1982). Linguistic input is paramount to comprehension, which not only precedes oral production but "appears to be the basic mecha¬nism through which the rules of language are internalized" (Winitz, 1981: 130). Research has shown that adults spend 40-50% of their commu¬nication time listening, 25-30% speaking, 11-16% reading, and 9% writing (Rivers, 1981). Input to trigger acquisition should contain some grammar and vocabulary items somewhat beyond (i + 1) the student's production level (Krashen, 1981). Some researchers, however, maintain that learners must be active conversational partners in order to inter¬nalize language input (Hatch, 1983). Although more experimentation is needed to explain learner interaction more conclusively, it seems safe to assume that "matching the type of communicative interaction with the learners' level of language development maximizes students' likelihood for success" (Burt & Dulay, 1983: 43). These findings suggest that teachers should provide sequenced activities that take into account the language readiness factor and that facilitate progression from one learning stage to the next.
While it is apparent that learners experience stages in their development of speech readiness, evidence also suggests that they acquire grammati¬cal structures in a predictable order. Research deal¬ing with the "Natural Order Hypothesis" has been done in English by Brown (1973), Dulay and Burt (1974), and Dulay et al. (1982), among others. Results of recent work by VanPatten (1985) and

Chapter 4 / Total Physical Response: A Technique for Teaching Spanish 31

:mphasizes comprehension through an mi-ning period during which students connect itterances with meaningful contexts. As in guage acquisition, students first respond ly to oral commands and progress gradual-iductive language use. Experimental results at TPR, which advocates an "acquisition-vironment (Asher, 1982), increases student ion and contributes to positive attitudes foreign language learning, significance of the imperative exercise was ed as early as 1925 by Harold E. and e Palmer (1972) who much later advocat-e as part of an extensive listening period in foster successful language skills. :h experimental data exist from Asher and n support of TPR. In the first field test
by Asher (1972), adults between the ages d 60 received 32 hours of TPR training in . Results indicated that these students had itening comprehension skills than college s with 75 and 150 hours of German an and, further, that their listening ability itive transfer to reading and speaking in
Similar results occurred in using TPR to panese to college students (Kunihira and 965), as well as in teaching Russian to and adults (Asher & Price,1967; Ingram ?75). Data from a field test with college
learning Spanish revealed that, after 90 : training in listening to and producing ds, students performed beyond the 50th e rank for listening, speaking, reading, ing on the Pimsleur Spanish Proficiency Tin C) (Asher et ah, Chapter 2). Extensive Ltation exists to support the benefits of
children and adults acquiring French
1976); German (Swaffar & Woodruff, panish (Kalivoda et al., Chapter 3, this
English as a Second Language (Asher, nd even sign language (Murphy, 1979). idings indicate that TPR can facilitate tical understanding (Schessler, 1985; 1985).
Idition to research examining TPR and aisition, many studies have documented ttrition rates, student attitudes, and stu-aation of faculty. Swaffer and Woodruff's nt (1978) with college students learning showed that 78% of the first-semester

TPR students chose to continue their study of German, while only 55% of the "traditionally" taught students elected to continue. Experimenta¬tion also reveals that TPR students report increased interest in the target language and rate their teach¬ers' effectiveness much higher (Asher, 1983).
What psycholinguistic phenomena account for why TPR works? Evidence from first-language acquisition studies indicate that infants acquire language by "constructing reality" through motor responses such as touching, crawling, and crying (Piaget, 1926). Like infants, students also begin to map language structure onto meaning, that is, to internalize language, by responding physically to stimuli- Research in brain lateralization indicates that the left hemisphere is responsible for lan¬guage production, while the right hemisphere enables physical responses to occur. This suggests that infants use their right hemisphere to "decode" speech until the left brain is ready to orally produce language. The aim of the TPR strategy is to activate the right brain and give the left brain an opportunity to become ready for lan¬guage production. In addition to TPR, other right-hemisphere teaching strategies have been formulated, such as the Winitz-Reeds comprehen¬sion strategy (1975) and the Nord Sensit Cell Model (1981), both of which make use of pictures during the listening period.
TPR programs have been reported in elementary schools, high schools, and universities in Delaware, Texas, California, and Tennessee. The many projects undertaken by James J. Asher and Berry Segal in California have been widely publi-cized (Verier, 1983).
Graduate students at the University of Tennessee recently developed a TPR program ("FLEX") for local kindergarten and first-grade students; the results have been so favorable that the program may be expanded (Wiley, 1985). In the Loara Elementary School in Anaheim, CA, TPR is utilized along with the "Language Experience Approach" in which students express thoughts through action and the sensory channels (Elenbaas, 1983). The results of a German TPR program at the University of Texas proved more

favorable than those of the non-TPR classes (Woodruff, 1976). Vetter (1983) has described a program that combines TPR, the Natural Approach, and English for Special Purposes: the "High Intensity Language Training" (HILT) focus¬es on the communicative functions (content and area-specific), which students need to succeed in the language. Similarly, Kestelman and Maiztegui
(1980) have reported the "HILT—plus Program in
Spanish for Educarors."
Many materials for teaching TPR lessons have become available during the past few years. Asher has developed some twenty lesson plans and stu¬dent picture kits for teaching vocabulary and grammar. Lesson plans and guidelines are avail¬able for English, Spanish, French, and German.1 The materials developed at present, however, pro¬vide limited guidelines for implementing TPR lessons in a traditional language curriculum.
Although the research has shown the positive results to be gained by utilizing TPR, many teach¬ers consider it unfeasible to adopt the entire method at all levels of language. Moreover, TPR cannot easily be used to teach the abstract, and the exact techniques for presenting reading and writ-ing are still unclear.
Indeed, recent research has advocated the implementation of an "active" listening period as an element of the language methodology. Nord
(1981) previously established a four-phase listen¬
ing period to include TPR activities and semantic
decoding practice. Wipf (1984) has proposed the
challenging of learners to progress more rapidly in
listening and reading, since native language recep¬
tive skills surpass those of the generative skills. In
the comprehension-based Spanish program of
Long, et al. (1985), students acquire understanding
through listening exercises and thematic visuals. In
Terrell's (1986) "pre-textbook comprehension
stage," beginning Spanish students internalize
meaning through three to fifteen hours of extended
listening activity. Although the development of
these techniques has contributed a great deal to the
teaching of effective listening comprehension, the
well-defined use of TPR and guidelines for curricu-
lar modification have been lacking.

Chapter 4 / Total Physical Response: A Technique for Teaching Spanish 33

ents respond to oral stimuli in various : physically acting out stimuli; identify-rganizing realia or pictures; responding in sh.
second 15-minute listening experience one class period preceding language . The following activities are done in d listening period:
provides oral input in the target Ian-e, again conveying meaning through
nts again demonstrate comprehension by nding physically to oral stimuli, nts do oral listening exercises in the tar-, which may be multiple choice, questions, or true/false statements, presents language in written form to ents reading practice; exercises and are done, such as skimming/scan-vocabulary matching, and physical to written stimuli.
activities in which students react with sical responses" the following systematic suggested:
gives oral stimuli several times and action;
group of students (4-6) acts out oral
i with teacher;
lame small group of students acts out
li without teacher;
dual students from the group physically
id to stimuli;
dual students from the entire class physi-
respond to stimuli.
fing is a list, by no means exhaustive, of 'ities that are effective for practice of guage functions and contexts.3 Many :al structures (as listed below in paren-n be "taught" indirectly by means of ty's practice.

1 Drawing pictures, maps, portraits, floor plans: Functions:
Indicating locations, conditions {ser, estar, prepositions) Identifying and describing peo¬ple, places, things (adjectives, past participles used as adjectives)
2. Charting directions on maps:
Getting around in the city (command forms) Reporting action impersonally (passive with ser) Vocabulary internalization: road signs, names of business establishments
3. Setting table with food items or using pictures
on blackboard:
Indicating locations (prepositions) Vocabulary internalization (culture): foods, meals, eating utensils
4. Organizing pictures/photos in order of occur¬
rence in a story:
Talking about what happens (present, imper¬fect, preterite, perfect tenses, future, condition¬al, subjunctive progressive, subject pronouns) Telling time (ser with time expressions) Expressing time relationships (subjunctive after adverbial conjunctions)
5. Organizing realia or pictures in semantic
Vocabulary internalization: adjectives, stores, medicines, travel terms (lodging, transporta¬tion, travel agency, etc.),. banking, diversion activities, occupations, education, animals, mail, and many more
6. Taking inventory of items in class, school,
home and making lists:
Vocabulary internalization
Expressing likes and dislikes (gustar, definite
Indicating ownership (possessive forms)
7. Passing objects around among classmates:
Referring to people and things (object pro¬nouns)
Making comparisons (comparatives and superlatives)
8. Looking for hidden objects/people with specif¬
ic characteristics in room:

Indicating purposes, uses, destinations {para, personal a)
Describing things (adjective agreement) Indicating the presence and absence of things (indefinite and negative words) Expressing indefinite and unknown things (subjunctive) 9. Making food/crafts by following instructions: Functions:
Giving advice or orders (commands, object pronouns, demonstratives) Expressing uses for things (noun + de/para) Expressing wishes/requests (subjunctive)
10. Acting out actions or skits individually or
using doll or puppet:
Describing how we get ready for the day (reflexive verbs and pronouns) Expressing physical and emotional needs (tener expressions)
Expressing feelings (subjunctive after expres¬sions of emotions) Expressing cultural gestures
11. Silent interaction with classmates—matching
questions to answers, occupations to persons,
stores to items sold:
Getting information (asking questions)
Vocabulary internalization
12. Filling in phone messages, charts, time sched¬
ules, advertisements based on oral input:
Vocabulary internalization
13. Selecting pictures to describe oral language:
Speculating about present and past (future and
Indicating doubt and denial (subjunctive after
expression of uncertainty)
After the second listening period, students begin speaking by narrating orally the stimuli to which they had attended. Students describe activities done in class, using the grammar and vocabulary practiced. The TPR scenarios provide the basis for initial speak¬ing practice. Students then respond to a progression

Chapter 4 / Total Physical Response: A Technique for Teaching Spanish 35

2 Get Ready for the Day"
jwing plan is designed to teach students iiscuss their personal daily routines, par-their morning preparations. Although stu-ibably would have been exposed to telling
describing people (with ser, estar, tener) this lesson, practice of those functions
necessarily have to precede the lesson. lie function presented here would appro-be followed by a lesson on describing >ities, in which students would learn to leir day, evening, and weekend schedules ities.
the lesson is proficiency-based, a variety arms, pronouns, and vocabulary is prac-irectly throughout the sequenced func-ited activities. Two listening periods, in :dents "bind" meaning, precede speaking, md writing activities.
Description of Personal Daily Routine Narration about Personal Activities in Present time /Vocabulary Subsumed:
+ time expression
se/ducharse J
los dientes ;e las piernas/la cara ;e
el pelo
el pelo
: + articles of clothing
aar con su familia
■ sus libros
su casa
el autobus r a la escuela 1 una clase
acher demonstrates the morning routine Elena, the class doll, manipulating the spond to oral descriptions. The use of :her clarifies the meaning. (This activity eceded by a description of Maria Elena

and a t>r'e^ discussion: <;C6mo es ella? ;De donde es? ;Cudntos aiios tiene? ^Donde estudia? etc.) Oral Stimuli: Maria Elena se despierta a las siete. (Alarm clock sounds and indicates time.) Se levanta a las siete y diez. (clock) Se ducha por diez minutos. (clock, soap) Se afeita 'as piernas. (shaver) Se lava los dientes con Aim. (tube of toothpaste, toothbrush) Se peina. (comb) Se seca el pelo. (hairdryer) Se riza el pelo. (curling iron) Se maquilla. (bottle of makeup) Se pone una falda negra y una blusa blanca. (other articles of clothing possible) Desayuna con su familia. (coffee cup, breakfast roll) Recoge sus libros. Sale de la casa. Espera el autobus, (bus stop sign) Asiste a la clase de ingles. Teacher repeats oral stimuli several times, changing the order and acting out responses with the doll. 2. While the teacher gives oral sentences, stu¬dents act out responses with the doll. In large classes, two or three dolls might be used with stu¬dents in groups. All students should be given the chance to respond. If it is not feasible to bring in realia, magazine pictures of items can be used. H. LP2: 1. Teacher repeats oral stimuli from LP1, and students again respond physically with the doll. 2. Teacher describes his/her own daily rou¬tine, using a similar format in the first person with the help of realia. 3. Teacher presents same oral stimuli with pictures: Marcos se afeita. El senor Gomez sale de su casa. Berta se maquilla. The third person plural verb forms can also easily be integrated: Los hermanos desayunan a las siete. Ellas recogen sus libros. Stimuli are repeated several times. Students respond by identifying the appropriate picture for each statement. 4. Students do listening exercises: a. Multiple choice: teacher gives 3 oral statements and then either mimes action, uses doll, or holds up a picture; students choose the correct verbal description (a, b, c). b. True-False: students identify as true or false oral descriptions of physical actions/pictures. 5. Students see written forms and practice reading: a. Students respond to written statements by miming actions or manipulating doll. b. Matching: students match verb form to relared vocabulary (e.g., Recoge—los libros; sale—de la casa; se afeita—las piernas); verbs can also be matched to pictures of vocabulary items. 1H. Speaking Phase: 1. Students narrate orally the actions as per¬formed by the doll. 2. Students pretend to be the doll and narrate in first person. 3. Students respond to oral questions: a. Yes—no questions: ;Se levanta ella? (Se peina? ;Se lava los dientes? b. Questions with one-word answers: ;A que hora se despierta? ;Con quienes desayuna? 4. Students describe their daily routines and answer personal questions. 5. Students interview each other. They need to be given examples of the tu verb forms. During subsequent classes, students can prac¬tice narrating daily routines in present, progres¬sive, and past time. IV. Reading Phase: 1. Students respond physically to written sen¬tences, as prepared by teacher and classmates. 2. Students do other types of reading activi¬ties, for example: a. finding specific pieces of information in a chart or passage (e.g., ;A que hora se despierta?); Chapter 4 / Total Physical Response: A Technique for Teaching Spanish 37 iplex grammar. A continuous recombina-anguage elements and TPR activities ut all levels will provide optimal opportu-internalization of meaning to occur. SION y has presented a plan for implementing Physical Response technique into a profi-sed foreign language program for Spanish : languages. Research findings in support rial speaking period and the use of TPR iewed. The various phases of TPR with speaking, reading, and writing practice ined together with an outline for teaching how to discuss their daily preparation Included were suggestions for utilizing 11 levels of language as a basis for review nalization of meaning and structure. re experimentation should examine the teaching receptive skills via TPR before and writing. Since the use of TPR is in rill in its infancy, further research is also 1 developing innovative strategies for its itation as well as curricular guidelines iing materials. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 1 Does affect and the "affective filter" (of Krashen and others) justify the delay of oral production for some or al! students during the early stages of language acquisition? 2 Glisan suggests incorporating reading and writing tasks and advancing from concrete to abstract lan¬guage use through TPR. What other applications can you see for her suggestions? For instance, could they be applied in the teaching of reading? (See Chapter 17.) 3 A starting caveat is that language teachers should rely on "real communication in meaningful, interest¬ing contexts" (p. 34). What happens when this caveat is neglected? What evidence is available? 4. How can "oral interviews" and "personal stories" (p. 36) be used to relate developing target language structures to the actual experience of students? Compare these ideas with the kinds of things that "whole language" and "experience-based" reading teachers do. (Again, see Chapter 17, and the rest of Part 4.) omplete list of materials is available from Sky luctions, Inc., P.O. Sox 1102, Los Gams, CA term function here is used to refer to the oral ative task being accomplished, e.g., expressing ikes, getting information, expressing uests, etc. ; functions listed are taken from a recently 1 proficiency-based textbook: James M. ;on, Poco a Poco—Spanish for Proficiency. A: Heinle and Heinle, 1986. Chapter 4 / Total Physical Response: A Technique for Teaching Spanish 39 ling Professor: by Using he-Minute V lliepman lolin .d CTION 'fessional journalists (Bacon and e help of a professional photog-■, the material presented here is finally, it appeared in a popular 987), and in The Ram's Horn can and Director of Language Ids the distinguished William R. <;mouth and has served on presi-in for teaching excellence at a the «Palmes Academiques» of it known as the beloved maniac tctionately referred to as "The 't? Rassias thinks so, and many ■potlight" (as Robert Wolkomir , as a result, all of us, I believe, is an overdose of that affliction, John Rassias has the genius of through acting. Even as a child ?er depressed his tongue with a imitive? Not necessarily. Joel D. ■ of the Rassias method can be I through computer-assisted lan- - Acting and life are inseparable from effective teaching," says John A. Rassias. Faithful to this philosophy are his astonishing methods which have woven so successful that his name—and Rassias-type language courses—have exploded from the hills of New Hampshire to national acclaim.... Underlying the muted pause at ten minutes past eleven on a Tuesday morning in a basement room of Dartmouth Hall, was an electric mood of expectation. No one seemed exactly sure of what was about to happen, yet there was no apparent discomfort. Spotted among the black-upholstered rows of seats, knots of students whis¬pered; others still clustered at the exits, their class break about over. The next hour would culminate in bloodied hands, exhortations, splattered eggs, and cries of rage. Even on such a calm morning there would be thunder and lightning. The formal half of the lecture on French litera¬ture was over. It had left its barely decipherable scrawl of notes across the triple-layered, electroni¬cally operated chalk boards that spanned the width of the high wall behind the dais. Twin tele¬vision screens, mounted halfway up each side of the proscenium, stared back blankly in the uneasy stillness of the beige-walled, red-carpeted, win-dowless lecture hall in one of the oldest buildings at Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire. Professor John A. Rassias entered almost unobtrusively. Member of the Department of Romance Languages and Literatures, Director of the Foreign Language Program, originator of the Dartmouth Intensive Language Model, he was laden with the paraphernalia of his lecture, the last act of Jean Paul Sartre's play, Le Diable et le Bon Dieu. Preoccupied, he nodded to the students as they drifted to their seats. A graying man now in his early fifties and a onetime Marine, Professor Rassias is a revolution¬ist. Over recent years his thoughts and actions have recruited an army of dedicated intellectual loyalists. He has been a controversial figure on the campus for a dozen years. Solidly built and of medium height, he tends today (despite a nodding acquaintance with weight-watching, numerous cups of coffee, cigarettes, and an abundance of nervous and physical energy) towards professorial paunchiness. Professor Rassias, a Greek-American native of New Hampshire who is comfortably trilingual (English, Greek, French) but who can communi¬cate in ali the Romance languages as well as a handful of dialects spoken on the coast of West Africa and in Micronesia, is a man of substantial academic credentials (B.A., University of Bridgeport; Doctorat d'Universite de Dijon, France; Certificat d'Institut de Phonetique; a some¬time student at the Sorbonne in Paris), the recipi-ent of teaching honors (Distinguished Teacher of the Year Award, 1962, University of Bridgeport; Outstanding Teacher of the Year, 1968, Dartmouth College; The Harbison Award from the Danforth Foundation for the ten outstanding teachers of America, 1970; nominated to Outstanding Educators of America, 1973), and a language consultant (M.A.T. program at Experiment in International Living; member of the Board of Directors of the Committee of International Medical Exchange; Peace Corps Language Programs). He is also the author of innumerable pam¬phlets and books in the fields of his primary inter¬ests (modern Greek, French literature, and language teaching). In 1977, technically on sabbat¬ical from Dartmouth, he was working to complete two more French grammar books as well as his autobiography, all of which were contracted with Harper Sc Row, publishers. Between times he has a full schedule of speaking engagements at colleges across the country (during a "normal" academic year he speaks on the average of once a week off-campus to conventions of language teachers, Dartmouth alumni meetings, corporations which are investing heavily now in his teaching theories), and he will return to Hanover periodically for lan¬guage workshops, and fly to West Africa to resume an active consultant role with the Peace Corps there. "You may think this is a put-on," an unidenti¬fied student whispered in the dusky hall as he wedged his way past to find a seat, "but every class is like this. Believe me, it makes a difference." The professor had reached the dais. He leaned the base of a crudely made, three-foot-tall crucifix against the chalk tray, and struggled for a minute with a cuirass and medieval helmet he carried Chapter 5 / The Thunder and Lightning Professor 41 under his arm. During the break he had strapped 0n leather shin guards over his dark blue pants. As he adjusted the breast plate, he carried on a rapid-fire monologue in French, motioning the students to move closer. These pieces of equipment and three or four straight wooden chairs scattered across the dais were his only props. For most of the next hour John Rassias had the stage to himself. Occasionally he called up one student or another to assist as he focused his dra-matic abilities on interpreting the characters of the final act of the Sartre play. The lecture room— however wall-to-wall carpeted and acoustically perfect it had been an hour before—had not until now seemed a place for intimacy. John Rassias changes that. Without raising his voice above a hoarse whisper or a guttural, sensu¬al pleading, he wills each character into life. Sometimes with a hunch-backed stoop or an ingratiating bow, often with wringing hands and rolling eyes, these characters parade across the stage one by one just as the emotions troop across Rassias's facile, contorting face. He strides from one side of the stage to the other in torment, in supplication, crashing chairs, pounding his leather-clad breast or ripping off his helmet to go down on his knees and plead directly with his audience who, by the very power of his emotional-ly charged voice and suggestive gestures, have themselves become participants with him in this moment of exposure. In a mad climax he spins to address the cruci-fix. Then, uttering a hopeless scream, he whirls on the audience, his palms dripping blood. As peals of thunder reverberate and lights flash on cue, this devil-like ogre heaves handfuls of eggs into the darkness. His diabolical laughter is the only echo-ing sound in the student hush. An article in Time magazine in 1978 said, "In a large sense, language study is thriving at Dartmouth because of the ebullient personality and unique teaching method of John Rassias." The professor is an unselfconscious actor. He has studied drama, not as the basis for a career, but as a tool for more effective teaching. He wants all teachers to do the same, no matter what their chosen discipline may be. "Camus summed it all up in his play Caligula,'"'' Rassias says now over coffee, the stage blood washed from his hands, props out of sight, but still sweaty in the aftermath of his exertions. "One of his characters says..." In the pause his mind races through the text to find an appropriate translation. "...'You don't believe enough in the theater."' He lights another cigarette. "Commun-ication is the key." He is also fond of saying, "Nothing is real unless it touches something in me and I am aware of it." The Rassias use of dramatic technique comes only after an exhaustive literary analysis of the work under discussion. It brings a further dimen-sion to the literature. However, it is sometimes hard to separate the method from the man himself. John Rassias is naturally outgoing, intense, and emotive. He frequently uses flamboyant ges¬tures to press a point, and a range of facial expres¬sions to reinforce his enthusiasm for what he is doing. He is constantly reaching out to touch his students in class, making them reel with a French embrace and a loud, smacking kiss on each cheek to complement a response. "You know," Rassias says in a moment of calm, "the student has got to be made to stretch his powers, his capacities. Isn't that what teach¬ing's all about? The extremes I use are for awaken¬ing. In the traditional classroom, passivity reigns. All you see is a bald head and a book propped in front of it. It makes you question if anything vital can be going on. The theater is an arena of action in which capacities are immediately tested and stretched." He knows there is more to an understanding of literature and of human beings than a discus¬sion of their parts. He tries to convey the emotions which compelled an author to write the work in the first place. Sometimes he appears in class dressed as the author (the Marquis de Sade, for example, bewigged and in eighteenth-century cos¬tume) and talks with his students, criticizing "my" works. On examinations students have been known inadvertently to address him as the Marquis, rather than the professor. Once, in pre¬senting several classical Greek themes as seen by modern French playwrights, he arrived with a homemade clay head as a stage prop ("It was no work of art but it served its purpose.") that became his unspeaking companion for the French dramatic monologue that followed. Chapter 5 / The Thunder and Lishtning Professor 43 orly," Rassias instructs his teacher corps. * ikes are immediately righted, and the stu- ■ st repeat it correctly. Acceptable responses breed with embraces, pats, clucking nois-;miles. le final week of the semester his students :d by other faculty members in the five : grammar, comprehension, vocabulary, and accent. They also must present dra-kits which they conceive and produce ther members of the class, n, off to France. Since 1968 more than 'artmouth students have had this experi-is no "grand tour." Students are boarded nch families and immediately immersed in life and culture. They have classes from il noon, then study French civilization and from two to five. There have been only iplaints to date from the foster families: ient with indigestion but not the proper .1 vocabulary, swallowed a suppository: r let his thirst rule his manners and , ;d his French hosts by guzzling his wine. :y second year Rassias himself takes his , :o France for the ten-week semester of on. At the end of that time, he throws the if unknown French villages in a hat and ■ students off. rap them in a village without money, extra , connections—nothing—and tell them to ck after three days with all the political, c, social, cultural workings of that village fingertips. It's amazing what adventures 'e, and how appreciative they become of ty and friendliness. When they come back ampus they are ready for an analysis of iterature and ideas." Exxon Education Foundation sees in r Rassias's method an "educational inno-jf demonstrated merit." It has already about $100,000 to disseminate the pro-t 1970 Rassias completed a documentary cective Language Teaching, which Exxon and which is the genesis of the Impact ; n, again sponsored by Exxon, on the • campus to which qualified faculty from ■lieges and universities are invited for an ; :, four-day blitz workshop twice a year, as this film Rassias recently showed to a of Dartmouth College alumni in Pittsfield, *. . ■ usetts. Having left Dartmouth late after 'Yf^j-'is usual 3Ctive lecmres> severaI meetings, "".": ■ ■"■•'(.heduled student appointments, he arrived ',r^|1-' -reathless just as dinner was being served. ;!. '„."...: a table with many of his recently gradu-' ". ■ .'■■■ ents, who had acted, in the social prelimi-l!"-".-.* ■; a kind of advance party to propagate the ""'■'-"i '^ne woman, not at his table, said, "My "" "■- ■ ■ - says I might not like him. He might make «■"■" — ncomfortable. But she raves about him."
"j „■ film was shown after a sparsely sung col-
■ ■ . ■ \ In it Rassias, master teachers, appren-
-i-.-s .- d students demonstrated the Intensive
j :. . e Program. Besides tracing the routine
:; ises, it offered interviews with participat-
i-v ■ ;nrs ("Exhilarating." "It makes me lose my inhibitions, and I can make mistakes.").
When the lights came on, Rassias got down to business. It was not the usual after dinner talk. He pulled off his tie and jacket, rolled up his sleeves, let the sweat bead on his forehead unnoticed, and reverting now to Greek so no one was likely to have an advantage—demonstrated to the accom-paniment of finger-snapping, cajoling, loud smack¬ing embraces, and body language that learning can be a stimulating activity.
"You know it's all a part of being alive," Rassias contended, "and making others feel alive. The teacher must make eye-to-eye contact with his Students. This says, 'We're all in this together. We're all equals."' Rassias must even drop to his knees occasionally—below the student—which suggests, "We all make errors."
"I've always maintained that the teacher is not one person in one place and another somewhere else. He's human, too. Acting and life are insepa¬rable from effective teaching." At home, just across the river in Vermont, Rassias has recently built a barn-like post and beam structure that is his own miniature theater. It is a place where he has done some filming, where students can come at any hour of the day or night to practice their language skills, rehearse skits, or just get away from the campus. It is also where Rassias can pre-pare the next bit of bizarre stage business that he hopes will cement the lesson for tomorrow's student.
His wife, a tall, thin woman of Slavic back¬ground, has learned to speak Greek so she can converse with her mother-in-law who lives with

them and their three children. She relays the day's telephone messages with a light touch of humor, the same she had evidently expressed at her hus¬band's announcement that he had been asked to write his autobiography. Life is sometimes a bit frenetic in the Rassias household.
John Rassias admittedly has no hobbies. He wanders off across the unmowed lawn towards his theater. He is practicing palming a sharp knife and hopes it will be more professional than the last time he attempted it before an audience. Then, dazzled students were treated to more than stage blood.
"But it made a good effect," Rassias says smiling.
by Ma Baolin
Westerners sometimes find it off-putting, or even feel offended, when they learn that Chinese people refer to them as "big noses." But it is true that many foreigners do have big noses, at least com¬pared to the relatively small, flat noses on the faces of many Han Chinese.
Take language teacher John A. Rassias as an example—he really does have a big nose. He also has big, burly shoulders, a rough hewn face, unruly hair, and, especially, a big personality.
But the 50 Chinese schoolteachers who sat waiting for him in a Beijing University classroom one day this spring had no way of knowing that they were about to meet a whirlwind. So when Rassias flung open the door and shouted an exu¬berant "Ni haol I'm Luo Liyan!" it was no wonder that they were slightly stunned.
Rassias had made yet another of his grand entrances, all in the service of his unique method of language teaching. But seeing the teachers' per¬plexity at his calling himself by a Chinese rather than an English name, he took some time to explain. He said one of his Chinese colleagues in America had given him the name, which means "devoted to language teaching," and that he was very fond of it.
The teacher-students probably expected Rassias to pull out a grammar book and begin writing examples on the blackboard, but instead

Chapter 5 / The Thunder and Lightning Professor 45

ad to foot in an explosion in his home. Ac vas feared that he had been blinded, but ne months in bandages, he regained his
was like being born twice," he recalled, e of the accident, my ear became very alert, to words, but to feelings. So when a person nething and doesn't mean it, I can almost rhat's why I stress the senses so much." er graduating from the University of art in Connecticut, Rassias went to France ' literature. There, he became involved in ching and acting.
■cached a point where I had to choose n the theater and the classroom," he .. "And I had a revelation: why not do ) I just take the essence of acting—the abil-ouch an audience—and the essence of ;—communication—and fuse them." arding this point, Rassias admitted that he :n inspired by the Chinese philosopher ius, whose most famous maxim about ; says, "If I hear something, I forget it; if w me something, I remember it, but if you le do something, I will never forget it
1 will understand it."
sias believes that, for both actors and , the best way to be effective is to keep the :'s, or the students', attention. He does so ; surprise and spontaneity, recounted that in one workshop, when he :ing about being spontaneous, he suddenly Dughing. The students got frightened, and
2 to get him water because they thought he
'king. Even Parry thought something was
f wrong. Rassias reached into his pocket
led out some pills, actually bits of chalk,
ped them into his mouth while continuing
He also kept on coughing, and every time
hed he would spit out some of the chalk
The students were confused, but also
and listened spellbound, id this just for the sake of spontaneity, to em realize I might do anything, anytime, :e the lesson more interesting," he d.
sias developed his approach to teaching ; as a revolt against traditional methodolo-
says it is bad to make students memorize,

iuse language "is always living, fleeting, chang¬ed growing."
He als° believes that students should learn nt the cultural features linked with the lan-guage they are studying.
"For instance, when an American says 'hello,' he savs it from a completely different cultural background than when a Chinese says, 'Nt hao,™ he said. "In my workshops, we discuss the cultural framework, for example, body language. People should know such things as how you shake hands, how close you stand, whether you meet the other person's eyes, and whether you touch."
Rassias also objects to teaching approaches which set teachers above their students. "I want people to develop their own personalities and resources," he said. "I believe there is no such thing as a bad student. There are only bad teach¬ers. And they're bad because they don't care enough. They don't put enough energy into it, they don't show respect for their students, and they don't prepare their lessons."
A Personality Change
One woman from Xiamen University who teaches Chinese to foreigners said she liked Rassias's emphasis on acting as well as teaching because it made the classes lively and interesting for students. "Rassias's methods won't frighten students or make them nervous," she said. She added that her experience in the workshop had convinced her that Rassias's approach would "let Students relax and help them concentrate."
Another teacher, a member of Beijing University's English department who served as Rassias's assistant during his stay, said her stu¬dents had become much more interested in study¬ing English after she adopted some of Rassias's methods.
One student in the workshop underwent a real transformation. A teacher of English from one of Beijing's middle schools was so tall, heavyset, and ungainly that the other students dubbed him shamao (fool). He became so self-conscious that he would hide in a corner of the classroom. He was too intimidated to answer questions or take part in any of the skits.
But as time went on and Rassias's kindness and empathy became evident, the man started feel-

ing less and less nervous, and before long he was dashing up to the front of the classroom, answer¬ing questions, and acting in the skits. His class¬mates and Rassias as well began calling him "Mr. Volunteer."
Later, when the man went back to his school, he wrote a letter to Beijing University praising Rassias's methods. "Rassias not only taught me how to teach, he changed my personality," he wrote.
Rassias believes that the workshops succeeded because he tried to bridge the cultural gap between China and the United States by showing his stu¬dents his weaknesses as well as his strengths.
"I'm not trying to be phony," he said. "I say, 'I've come to China to respect you 100 percent and with an open heart. I respect your culture and I won't do anything to offend you. But I'm always open and honest and direct, and I just hope you'll understand what I'm trying to do. So it doesn't matter if you're Chinese or American, because we're speaking without prejudices.'
"What I've been doing is trying to blow away all the crusts that cover the human heart so we can communicate heart to heart. As a teacher of lan¬guage and culture, I believe that there are many similarities among all peoples and that we have to learn about these similarities. Where there are dif¬ferences, we have to respect them, because if we don't do that, we are not going to survive on this globe."
by Joel D. Goldfield
The experiential, sensorial core of the Rassias Method makes special demands on educational technology, for as many of the senses as possible should be appealed to and skillfully integrated into the language learning process to encourage, enhance, and facilitate learning. Although the lan-guage and culture experience will often be vicari¬ous in the language lab and classroom, it can be engaged or enhanced through the skillful use or selection of CALL, audio, and video materials. Recent research summarized in Modern Media in Foreign Language Education; Theory and Practice

Chapter 5 / The Thunder and Lightning Professor 47

typical foreign language classroom a "Valium Valley"? What can be done to reduce the soporific r? What impact, for instance, can be expected from episodic organization and the infusion of 'oltage energy that Rassias demonstrates?
1 ,.- is says that all communication ought to take place in the target language. To realize this difficult ive, he uses drama. Can any. teacher get by without it? Is any communication altogether devoid ing? (See Chapter 32 by Seaver.) What are some of the effects of such dramatizations on compre->n, communication, and interpersonal relationships in the classroom?
s the difference between the drills that Rassias uses and those of the audio-lingual era? Rassias 't just pull unrelated sentences out of a strained brain or a magic hat. Notice what he does, and s the difference between that and practicing a list of sentences that merely illustrate some gram-■ ■ ll structure.
ipturn in foreign language enrollments did accompany the introduction of the Rassias method (as :en claimed; Johnston, 1980,1983; Lein, 1992), what would it mean? Or why, do you suppose, a it who had just had an egg broken on his head would describe the event as "an intense, loving - ■ ence" (60 Minutes, 1982)?
ious media, one might wonder if there are
■-ign language videos which engage the.
t least two of them) and provide opportu-
learner response. Starting close to home,
suggest one video series that we have used
outh State College as well as in tutorial
for the 10-day, French ALPS immersion
at Dartmouth College during the past
. Students ranging in age from 17 to
have used Contact French episodes
rviews conceived and created by John A.
as a videotape series in 1983 for CBS
lucational Division.
e videotapes include a wide variety of sit-
which assist the students in addressing oral
tural proficiency guidelines specified by
social ones, such as apologizing, excusing,
lg, introducing people, etc., and topos-
nes, such as the airport, the hotel, shop-
ine-tasting, traveling by taxi, evening
iment, diplomatic dealings, cooking, and
. There is also a wealth of usually spon-
interviews with various blue-and white-
'orkers. These exchanges are particularly
.t the intermediate and advanced levels.
organizers can be prepared for the less-
vels to help them focus on certain images,
ind ideas. To allow students to practice
.se cultural materials and receive instant
k on their comprehension, for example,
the word-by-word level, this author has
:d, with Prof. Rassias's permission, a
including most of the interviews plus
tracks and original photos for appro-
ncouragement and reward for student
. Reports on the development of these
and their testing in language center and
situations will appear periodically in
'5 Horn.
obvious and immediate advantage that and videodisc have over language--style audiotapes is the video contextu-plus what I will call "read my lips." The follow the pronunciation somewhat 'ly by repeatedly observing facial and lip nts and slowing down the video speed, if offers this feature. As if in a Dartmouth--paced drill, the viewer is one of the stu-an invisible chair within the ) group. The attractively attired

Cf -
R -*■*■.»-

jf the French-based "Rassias Repertory
■ * flank the viewer, and cajole and encour-ies by the Rassias whirlwind. And all this safety of one's own home." While some
■ rocedures that Rassias Method practition-to diminish inhibitions (Krashen's affec-
'zr)—pace, humor, verbal, gestural, and .ncouragement, change of eye level and in the room—are not available in this i, viewers could use the videos privately , their learning companions for minimal
Dne reads in "The 'New Generation' ;e Laboratory'VContacJ French, John ; series ... is one of the most technically ated yet least known video programs; our are highly enthusiastic about Rassias's ; presentation." The range of material and ing nature of the small-group exercises

probably struck the author's West Los Angeles College classes as innovative. Pacing, energy, peda¬gogical technique, humanity, and the involvement of other "students" in the video help defocus the laser light of individual questioning, just as they do in the regular practice sessions. Key words that often recur among observers of Rassias Method practitioners are enthusiastic and enthusiasm. Along with preparation, dramatization (role-play¬ing, etc.), and specific pedagogical techniques defined elsewhere, the instructor's enthusiasm, in whatever style it is expressed, should affect stu¬dents positively and further motivate language learning, reflecting HUlel's teaching: "If I am not for myself, who will be for me? And if I am only for myself, what am I? And if not now, when?" Indeed, by extension, a shared truth is that if we are "for" our subjects and our students, our stu¬dents will be for them as well.

Chapter 5 / The Thunder and Lightning Professor 49

ic Curriculum:
■ Oiler, Jr. |
U C T10 N
and early 1960s, the pragmatic i
theories of the time. The wave of i
alysis and syntactically motivated !
level of El espanol por el mundo ;
luded the fact that it ignored any \
and the native language of most
his criticism later by showing that ,
e in order to acquire another one. i
barely relevant to language teach- x
had been made light of. Irregular j
mperatives with attached pronomi-
the first semester. Krashen's "net i
mention the abundance of research \
objection concerning structural j
yet available. Some said that El j
to the audio-lingual standard of \
mundo, and the key to its success,
inguage. But what the critics over-
could see. The plan could produce
issroom setting. This chapter shows
:ed in greater depth in Chapter 37)
aage on the useful everyday level is situational sequential and that the moment a student can : automatically. ..to a given situation identified
his own experience, he "knows" the foreign aage used in that situation. The proper proce-
then is to immerse the student in the world hich this language is used, a world inhabited eople about whom he knows and cares (Oiler, 1963: be).

r¥- vever, El espanol por el mundo did not
n,t.*c\ >athe students in a flood of target language
„■-£■ * -es (as in an unstructured "direct method").
N'c - <- - it merely expose them to a series of situa- , ._. - a list of examples of communicative func- .,*-.. D the target language (as in some ,-ii ; - ons of the "notional functional syllabus"). ■•-•■•_-. El espanol por el mundo put the students ,n:. world of the target language, beginning A t'i ~ ef anc^ simple episodes of experience and -i-,., - ing to more complex ones. The objective U,*, ■-mersion," not into a sea of utterances, but --. 'fledged contexts of living where utterances jv ues and meanings by virtue of their inte-jjr ' into the purposes, the conflicts, and the ,hips of people. El espanol por el mundo A -. -■" imitted to the thesis that utterances do not .-.. - • iacuo, but in the course of ordinary experi-z -- a r:ch and varied world of people and ;■_ ■ .web. purposes, goals, conflicts, and rela-:■ - -s. Thus, it was argued in the Teacher's V - for La familia Ferndndez that the i g of everyday experiences with people of a a tongue creates the climate of sympathy . - ary and establishes the sine qua non for the ig of the language, the desire of the students •n to communicate with the people of that .ge ... (Oiler, Sr., 1963: ix). Parallels and Contrasts with the "Notional/ Functional Syllabus" .* J en years later, British theorists, notably w ■. Widdowson, and their disciples, would ':'- heoretical distinction between "synthetic" •i.'c'' ■ and "analytic" teaching. Later Johnson ■■ ~- tpsuiize this distinction as follows: pnthetic approach the teacher isolates and the forms of the linguistic system, system-- y presents them to the student one by one.... lyric teaching it is the student who does the is from data presented to him in the form of ■al chunks." Wilkins associates the synthetic ~ * ich with structural syllabuses, and the ana-pproach with notional specifications (1979: N al specifications" were characterizations age use based on semantic or pragmatic analyses. More specifically, the term notional came from the traditional "notional" definitions of grammatical categories (e.g., "a 'noun' is the name of a person, place, or thing"}. Wilkins' distinction between "synthetic" and "analytic" approaches paralleled the dichotomies of "discrete-point" versus "integrative" teaching as well as Krashen's distinction between "learn¬ing" and "acquisition" (1981, 1982). While "dis-crete-point" teaching tries to get students to synthesize a whole language system out of thou¬sands of isolated bits and pieces presented one at a time, "integrative" teaching presents holistic com¬municative events and allows students to resolve them analytically into usable elements. Therefore, in some respects, the British recom¬mendations for a "notional/functional syllabus" would parallel the pragmatic approach. However, Johnson, who is himself a proponent of the "notional/functional approach" (1979), notes that the contrast between such an approach and a "structural" (i.e., "discrete-point" or "synthetic") approach is not entirely clear. He claims that "cer¬tainly many of the materials which have been pro¬duced following notional syllabuses indicate that this type of specification can lead to synthetic teaching" (1979:196). The problem is that in listing "notions and functions" one merely arrives at another set of iso¬lated bits and pieces of language cut loose from their moorings in experience. In the words of Widdowson, the goal of the applied linguist should be to "specify the nature of different com¬municative acts, the way they are realized, the way they combine in different varieties of language use" (1979: 59), or in another place, he urges that the key is "the understanding of what conditions must obtain for an utterance to count as a particu¬lar communicative act" (p. 57). The aim is to become "able to describe a type of discourse in terms of the kind of communicative acts it repre¬sents, and the manner in which they are given lin¬guistic expression" (p. 57). He apparently sees the goal as teaching "the rules of use" instead of "the rules of grammar" (p. 50). Similarly, Wilkins^ advocates a syllabus which will "cover all kinds of language functions" (1976: 19). As a result, teaching such lists (e.g., teaching a variety of ways to apologize, or to accept an invi¬tation, or to disagree politely with a superior) puts Chapter 6 / An Integrated Pragmatic Curriculum 51 : episodic organization in both its motiva-nd structural aspects (see Oiler, 1983b). a was for students to go with speakers of ;et language through ordinary experiences i to learn the language of those experiences: familia Fernandez.. .we follow through fihn lily multi-situational lives of a typical family :xico City. Their experiences are common to of all civilized families, and the language, uily checked for authenticity by many sh language experts, both lay and profes-, is that used by the middle class people of :o... (Oiler, Sr., 1963: ix). La familia Fern&ndez consisted of: ilmed lessons a lesson accompanied by a filmstrip orded exercises and drills orded tests (two per lesson) : student book containing over 1600 still tographs and cartoons :acher's manual with a word index—indi-ng initial usage of lexical items, plus the three reentries. Initial entry of vocabulary le exercises is in boldface type (Oiler, Sr., 3:ix). e outset, the pragmatic approach in ques-imed that the input in the target language lave to be made comprehensible. This ion would later be clarified by Krashen L985c, 1991). However, it was also sup-lat comprehensibility alone would not be t. More than that, the language of com->eriences would have to be actively operat-r the students so that the experiences of the rs in La familia Fernandez would become lized and appropriated by the students res:
: "exposure" is not enough to teach a lan-to large groups of students.... Until a lan-becomes an integral part of the student's ence, until he can react to and activate auto-illy language which has been made part of perience, he cannot communicate effectively : language (Oiler, Sr., 1963: ix).
object of El espanol por el mundo, there-s to facilitate the student's own entrance

--3 - : -world of experience of the target lan-'".-__.-o get the student to "be there." This, it ^ ' •_ appreciated, is substantially more than * r„ . josure to discourse. Even more obviously \. ,s ]- ; than mere practice with lists of sentences IIIJS- " °S syntactic patterns, or lists of commu-r —: .. acts illustrating notional/functional cate-
L in the "structure drills" of La familia t. r; . • . 'Z the goal of comprehension and incorpo--a: 3 f the language into one's own personal Vw--. experience remained intact:
.i. np that all language experience should be
: ^logically motivated and should revolve
I known facts within high frequency situa¬
te hjve structured all exercises to this end.
• ie structure drills. . . are either based upon
own tacts of the story or are cued by means oorss so as to render comprehension auto-• - vidiout translation (Oiler, Sr., 1963: x).
Multiple Cycles and the Communication Net
.*-.- critical element was a systematic plan for
„c - ig facility in the language of each episode
c .. ence. To accomplish this, the principle of
~. - - cycles was used (see the sixth recommenda-
: _: hapter 1). The initial exposure to each new
L_- * - i the target language was achieved through
■. - notion film and followed by a film strip of
s: ' - ires capsulizrag the events of the film and
:'-. ing of each utterance at its point of occur-
"j v. I the first exposure to each new lesson, the 3L :-■ was comprehension. On each subsequent :\~ . , the objective remained the same, but the "- :. ■ upped. The progression from cycle to cycle
ys intended to move the student from i to i
'., and so forth, in manageable steps. From
"'" ning, the intent was to throw the commu-
"net" (Krashen, 1980) so as to cover the : . * present capacity (the "zth stage") and a lit-r.' * d (the "i + 1 stage").
whole plan could be understood as a
•: cycles spiraling outward to a greater
-." ' and a higher level of comprehension on
s. In this series of broadening steps, the in each new lesson (from the beginning
was to show the film introducing the new

It is recommended that the teacher show the film at least three times and then by means of the "stills" go through the language with the students. During this activity overall general comprehension is obtained. It is not necessary, however, to achieve at this stage absolute and complete comprehension of each lexical item. Understanding grows from exercise to exercise (Oiler, Sr., 1963: x).
Within each lesson the syllabus was designed so that many passes would be made through the target language utterances and expansions of them. The first objective, in keeping with the "input hypothesis" (Krashen, 1983, 1985b, 1991, 1992), was to establish comprehension of the facts of the story line. This was achieved largely through the film.
Anchoring Utterances in Facts of Experience
For instance, in the first episode (lesson 1 of La familia Fernandez) the scene opens on a bright sum¬mer day with a little terrier disappearing around the corner of the house. The front door opens, and out walks 5-year-old Pepito Fernandez. He's looking around and wondering out loud, ";D6nde esta Iman?" He calls, "ilman! ilman!" As Pepito comes down the front steps into the enclosed courtyard, Iman (the same Uttle white dog we saw running off moments earlier) comes running back in response to Pepito's call. The boy sees him coming, and announces, "Aqui viene Iman." He bends down and pets the dog. About that time, the gardener walks by with a hoe. He says, "Buenos dias, Pepito." Pepito looks up and answers, "Buenos dias, Senor." Then, Enrique, a teenager, arrives, entering the courtyard from the street. Pepito announces to the gardener, "Aqui viene Enrique." The gardener goes on about his business and Enrique approaches and greets Pepito. Then, Enrique asks, ";D6nde esta Emilio?" Pepito hears the door opening behind him and looks around over his shoulder. Gesturing toward the door, he answers, "Aqui viene Emilio." Then Enrique and Emilio exchange greetings. Enrique asks Emilio, ";Estas listo?" Emilio answers, "Si. Estoy listo." Enrique gestures toward the gate and says, "Vamonos." Emilio answers, "Si. Vamonos," As the two older boys head for the gate leading to the street, Pepito takes up pursuit. At this point, lesson 1 ends.

Chapter 6 / An Integrated Pragmatic Curriculum 53

iriis stage is critical to advancing the stu and progressing to deeper levels of com on.
>rating the Utterances Themselves
eacher's Manual for La familta Fernanda: rd buildup imitation drills were recom —e.g., the student would hear, "(D6nd< in?" on tape, or live from the teacher e utterance would be broken down in*< ible (i.e., repeatable) units. On the tape ti would hear "Iman" (student repeats '. Again, "Iman" ("Iman"). Then "esta' s: "esta"), "esta Iman" (students: "estj "Donde" (students: "Donde"), "(D6nd< n?" his method, each line of the dialogue wa: :d and then repeated by the student ii ;gments until the whole line could bi vith some fluency. Throughout this phasi were reminded of meaning through thi ill pictures portraying the relevant event ory. Granted, some lines of dialogue wen sily pictured than others, but throughou ia Fernandez virtually every line was sucl comprehension could be visually aided 2 opening imitation phase of lesson 1 anc it was possible (and recommended) for al in the classroom to take place in the targe single 50-minute class period at the mid :>! or high school level it would be possible ;ss through three showings of the film ant
the imitation drill for the first lesson. Ii id class meeting a quick review of the filn :lp to refresh the students' memories.
>ns and Answers
uring the second meeting the teache. rogress to the question/answer cycle. B; it the students have already begun to pro ; utterances of the basic dialogue witl lency and with accurate pronunciation ■ also have a good solid understanding o ling of each utterance. The meaning ha; 'eloped and enriched from the first show e film until now. At this point the student n through the facts of the story until the;

3« "
i liar. Now the central focus shifts back to :• again as viewed through the utterances of
tars1" the -'-
tllfw I"
ar: - > ?:?'■-
,lU A -i ..
■„■ questions at this stage are asked in the ."Qguage and concern the familiar facts of
■ . For instance, students are shown a pic-
■ 'epito coming out of the house, and they -. d, "cQue pregunta Pepito?" ("What is
sking?) By now they know that at this
- the story (the opening of lesson 1), Pepito
. g for Iman, and he is wondering aloud,
.. esta Iman?" In the next picture Pepito is
.ailing, "Iman. Iman." The question is rita Pepito?" Since new words are intro-the questions (e.g., pregunta and grita in
- es), it takes some inferencing on the part
its to determine what is being asked. This
of uncertainty prevents the possibility of
O f
- ig in repetition without comprehension"
T., 1963: x) and ensures that some gen-
■ imunication must take place during the
n of this exercise. Also, each response
of students is consistently linked "to a presentation of its meaning" (Oiler, Sr.,
Linking of Form to Meaning and Vice Versa: Pragmatic Mapping
I . " ihasis on establishing the connection
;.' ■ meaning and form is one that is shared by
-*c its of the notional/functional or commu-
" « ipproach. As Johnson (1979) points out,
s a crucial difference between practice
; the linking of expression to actual mean-
■"-•— practice in which the student's attention
" ; d on achieving correctness of expression"
r - He goes on to point out that this differ-
ssential to Krashen's distinction between
tion" and "learning." Also, he notes
"■ 's caveat that students need "practice in
xpression to actual meaning" (1972; also
•=' * non, 1983).
1 i beginning to end it is always the linking
~" ind meaning that motivates the activities
;r and students in working through the of La familta Fernandez. First, the facts lished; then the students are familiarized ■nth the meaning and form of each utter-in the utterances are used to express the

facts in significant but manageable ways through questions and answers. Subsequently, by graduat¬ing from talk about the facts in the film to talk (in the target language) about the talk of the film, a higher level of abstraction is achieved and a deep¬er level of comprehension is ensured. For instance, as the question-answer exercises pro¬ceed, it is possible for the instructor to help stu-dents understand specific grammatical elements (i.e., to establish the pragmatic mapping of utter¬ance to meaningful context more precisely) by focusing attention on them through questions in the target language. To illustrate, consider the statement "Pepito pregunta, '(Donde esta Iman?*" as a response to the question ";Que pre¬gunta Pepito?" By producing the former utterance the student demonstrates at least some compre¬hension of the question. To push the comprehen¬sion still deeper, the teacher may ask, "^Quien pregunta, '^Donde esta Iman?' " ("Who asks, 'Where is Iman?'") to which the answer is, "Pepito." Then the teacher may ask, "(Que hace Pepito?" ("What does Pepito do?") to which the correct response is "Pregunta, '(Donde esta Iman?'" Probing still further, the teacher may ask, ",jPor quien pregunta Pepito?" to which the answer is "Pregunta por Iman" ("He asks about Iman"), and so forth throughout the elements of the entire episode.
Structure Drills as Paradigms of Demonstrable Meaning Changes
At about this same level of development, say dur¬ing the second or third class meeting, a simple high-frequency syntactic paradigm is developed and illustrated through the facts and meanings already established in the story and the communi¬cation that has already taken place in previous exercises concerning the story. A structure drill is introduced where each change in form has demon-strable consequences in terms of demonstrable meanings. For instance, students see a picture of Emilio pointing toward himself, saying, "Aquf estoy." Next, in the structure drill for lesson 1, is a picture of Enrique pointing toward Emilio. Enrique is saying, "Aqui esta Emilio." In the fol¬lowing frame, Emilio and Enrique are shown together, and a third voice says, "Aqui estan Emilio y Enrique." Finally in the fourth frame,

Chapter 6 / An Integrated Pragmatic Curriculum 55

vet Same Facts and Story, More zx Language
the level of talk about talk there is narra-ich lesson consists first of the dialogue resented through the film, and then talk he dialogue in imitation drill, question-exercises, structure expansion exercises, :stion-answer expansions of those exercis-iddition to all these methods of cycling L the material, there is full fledged narra-r instance, instead of saying, "Pepito pre-;D6nde esta Iman?'" we may say, "Pepito a por su perro. Dice, ';D6nde esta Iman?'" j asks about his dog. He says, 'Where is
viously it is easier to say ";D6nde esta
than it is to say "Pepito pregunta por su )ice, '(Donde esta Iman?'" However, by : students are able to do the more advanced i-answer exercises of lesson 1, they will be ) progress to the dialogue of lesson 2, and" ime they can do the question-answer drills a 3, they will be able to handle lesson 1 in e form. Thus in the Teacher's Manual for ilia Fernandez it was recommended that : work on a minimum of three lessons at a his gives a greater sense of progress, pro-built-in review, enhances the sense of conri-n.d reduces boredom. (And by the way, can truthfully claim that language acquisition method will not have its moments of tedi-
for some relief, see Part 6 of this book.)
and Writing Activities
the time students have reached the dia-
lesson 3, provided the material has been ely covered, they will have begun to stabi-pronunciation of all the material and will therefore be ready to encounter it n form. Hence, from about the third week
nts will be doing reading and writing s over the material previously covered, ly, at the beginning, reading and writing
would lag about three lessons behind the new material introduced first through the exercises of the film. In other the sequence was planned so that by the
articulatory/productive exercises of imita-

CC ■ CXI -. "'-•■,
■AC -
r!v :c:
Vt' ' J. -
iestion-answer, indirect restatement, and tarrative were reached for lesson 1, the stu-)uld be about halfway through the same s for lesson 2, and would be working on ; comprehension of the film for lesson 3. he meantime, reading and writing activities . je introduced for lesson 1. It was assumed ■ - re would be a good deal of positive trans-, ■ iss modalities and that, therefore, all four ■aditionally recognized skills should be car-ward more or less simultaneously, with lis-:omprehension leading the way, followed ■ative production, then question-answer "ion, and so forth up to fuller productive [owed by reading and writing activities in -Jer. However, as the students' facilities in juage progressed, it was assumed that the ■ ; between listening, speaking, reading, and could eventually be reduced and finally way with between the intermediate and -. d level.
Meaningful Sequence Prevails Throughout
.- ical factor that makes possible an integrat-lopment of all four skills and that maxi-he positive benefits of transfer across ies is the sequentiality of the lessons. That acts of the story line in lesson 1 continue son 2 and throughout. This is not to say 2 characters are always doing the same rom one lesson to the next. On the con-ley are never doing exactly the same thing e lesson to the next, but die normal conti-
I: *5 -
F -■
the world of experience is respected. For , in lesson 1, Enrique comes over to meet to go swimming. When it ends, Pepito P pursuit. At the beginning of lesson 2 atches up with them. He demands to know hey are going, ";A donde van ustedes?"
look of exasperation, Emilio tells him,
imports!" ("It's none of your business.") -tarts yelling for mother. Emilio begs him uiet. ("Callate, Pepito. Callate.") Emilio s that he and Enrique are going swimming.
agrees, "Si. Vamos a nadar." Pepito's eye-ise and he asks, "Puedo ir con ustedes?"
go with you?") Emilio frowns, "No. No " Pepito starts yelling for mother again. Emilio urges him to be quiet. "Bueno.

Bueno. Vamos." ("All right, all right, come on.") Pepito has won, but now that the victory is his, he loses interest. He says, "No. No quiero ir. Voy a jugar con Iman." ("No. I don't want to go. I'm gonna play with Iman.")
And so on it goes. One episode leads into the next. As students follow the characters through the various episodes, they also learn the language of those episodes. At the beginning, things seem to go along slowly and each utterance requires con¬siderable effort. By lesson 3 students are beginning to achieve some fluency, and by lesson 54 (the end of La familia Fernandez) students will have achieved a considerable facility and breadth in the language. At the midschool level it takes approxi¬mately 3 years to complete La familia Fernandez. At the high school level the same material can be completed in 2 years, and at the college level in two semesters.
By the time lesson 54 is completed, the student will have mastered many elements of standard Mexican Spanish (a vocabulary of over 3,000 words, and all the basic syntax and morphology of the language). The student will have learned to read and write all the material of all the lessons and will be able to use the language creatively well beyond the confines of the particular elements practiced in exercise contexts.
In the second level of the program, Emilio en Espana (intended for use in the third and fourth semesters of college Spanish or the third and fourth years of high school Spanish), the students go with Emilio to Spain where he travels to visit his grandparents. As in the case of level I, level II continues to use the principle of multiple expo¬sures to episodes of experience through multiple modalities of processing:
We reiterate that all the necessary skills for effec¬tive communication should be taught at all levels of study.... Comprehension, speaking, reading, and writing should not be approached as separate and conflicting objectives but as logical, systemat¬ic and harmonious components of learning (Oiler, Sr., &C Gonzalez, 1965: 7).

Chapter 6 / An Integrated Pragmatic Curriculum 57

h a glossary was provided at the end of t k both for La familia Fernandez and i en Espana indicating the initial entry a ^sequent entries of each new vocabula grammatical form, the authors reco: that, at level H, students be encouraged of several Spanish-to-Spanish dictionar ;king meanings and usages of unfamili
r Creativity Allowed at Level II
were also some significant contras level I, La familia Fernandez, and level en Espana, in terms of approach. In t ges of level I emphasis had to be placed i ring utterances and gaining producti of a whole new phonology, lexicon, a: itical system. At level II, because of t ment that had already taken place throu. it was possible to move more rapidly a: | v the student greater creativity from t i
ig- '
, the principle of multiple cycles throu, se anchored in experience was usi out. As in level I, lesson 1 of level H (ai sequent lessons) began with a film.'
:he first lesson of Emilio en Espana ■ man, whom we will later discover Fernandez, grandfather to Emilio, and 1 wife, Rosario, are seated in the patio ime in Sevilla. He's reading a magazir 's knitting. The maid enters with their a hot chocolate. She asks, "jQuieren ustec ilate ahora?"
old man answers, "jAh! Gracias." ust that moment the doorbell rings. T speaks to the maid, "Ve a ver quien i
maid leaves, and the old man, returning tading with the cup in his hand, takes a sip ot chocolate. With a mild look of surprise ist drops the cup, sucking air over his
lips and tongue. He says, "Cuidado,
que esta muy caliente." wife tests her hot chocolate carefully and ", "Si que lo esta. Dame el aziicar por
passes the sugar.

& returns, and the old man asks, "iAh!
;, "Es un telegrama, senor," as she
jen sera?" he mumbles as he opens it
D read. His eyes widen. "jPor fin! Va a
." (At last, Emilio is going to arrive.)
ieto?" asks Rosario with a look of
tro va a ser?" {Who else would it be?) retorts.
Ira aqui?" she persists undaunted. > va a Madrid," he answers patiently. ia es de tu hijo, Adolfo.2 Emilio is uesday."
legria!" exclaims Rosario; then she :erthought, "Pero, ;por que no vendra D?" The old man answers that she is no flight from Mexico City direct 'ou're right,'" she answers, "we'll have o and tell him the good news." idea," Santiago answers ";Que ea tiene Salamanca?" n't remember and sends him frowning one directory a few steps away from : finds the number finally and dials, cinco—siete . . . jHola! jlgnacio? . . . . Tenemos telegrama de Adolfo . . . nilio dentro de una semana . . . ;A I Madrid . . . Voy a ir a recibirle con cVas tu tambien? Bueno; nos vemos . Saludos a todos. Adios." ; up the phone and comes back to the
•es Ignacio va a estar a recibirle tam-io asks.
antiago answers, "he's going to be in few days on business." ranza?" she asks. "No," he says, "Esperanza is not coming, but :o will arrive in the capital a couple of days sr."
"iQue bien!" she says. "I need to buy some ngs in Madrid." "Shall we fly?" he asks.
"I wouldn't think of it!" she answers with a ik of horror. "For me it will have to be by train, t on the telephone and make reservations imme-tcly." "Right now?" he sighs.

"Of course," she says matter-of-factly. "There are only five days till Emilio arrives." Thus ends the opening episode.
Establishing the Facts
As in level I, the first step is to establish the facts of the film. What happens? Who is there? Who is coming to visit? Where will he arrive? etc. However, unlike the opening lesson of La familia Fernandez, at level II it is possible to carry out all of the talk (with very rare exceptions) in Spanish.3
Since the language of the dialogue is now con¬siderably more challenging than was possible in level I, the first step is to summarize the events of the story at the outset. For example, "Los abuelos estan en el patio. Van a tomar chocolate caliente. Suena el timbre y la doncella va a ver quien es..." (Oiler, Sr., 5c Gonzalez, 1965: 36). Also, to make the transition from level I to II smoother for stu¬dents who may have considerably varied back¬grounds, all the tenses of the indicative are reviewed in the first few lessons.
As before, the next exercise poses questions relevant to what happened in the film. Here the vocabulary is expanded, and additional informa¬tion may be filled in. For example, as this exercise progresses the students learn that Esperanza is the wife of Ignacio. Of course, this should be inferred from the telephone conversation between Santiago and his son Ignacio, but in the first question-answer exercise it is made explicit. The teacher, of course, is encouraged to expand upon this ques¬tion-answer format ad libitum within the facts of the story. For instance, the teacher might ask who Paco is, to which there is a variety of correct responses. A student might answer correctly: "Es el hijo de Ignacio." Or "Es el primo de Emilio." Or the teacher might ask, ";Quien es Ignacio?" to which a student might answer, "Es el hermano del padre de Emilio," or "El padre de Paco, el esposo de Esperanza, el hijo de Santiago y Rosario Fernandez, y el tio de Emilio," and so forth.
After the question-answer exercises (account¬ing for a minimum of three passes per lesson through the facts of the story), there follows an expanded narrative recounting the facts of the film plus interpolations that expand upon the explicit happenings of the film. For instance, in the initial narrative [La Trimera Lectura) for lesson 1 we

Chapter 6 / An Integrated Pragmatic Curriculum 59

: de la fama que tiene el sistema de Europa. uma que tendrdn que pagar es pequefia. De ie la cama les sera muy comoda e igual el .to de dia. La goma que usan para cubrir las JS y los asientos se llama goma espuma, y [ta muy bien para el caballero or para la a. Podran contemplar el panorama, o tenerse escuchando y hablando en el idioma ia& con los pasajeros. El esquema que tienen ce muy bueno, ^verdad? (Oiler, Sr., & salez, 1965: 44).
lowing the grammatical narratives in each are writing exercises that provide an open-Spanish to be completed by the students ng to instructions of the teacher. Also, the .e from the film is given in its entirety.
ng Cultural Information
ollows another narrative version of the story. This one is called Expansidn del-Whereas La Primera Lectura stayed closely the facts and experiences of characters in , the Expansion deliberately ranges beyond rporate relevant geographical, historical, ltural information. For instance, in the i6n del Tema for lesson 1, some details are concerning the city of Sevilla, where the arents live. In addition, forecasting con-future lessons is given:
11a es la ciudad mas representativa de lucia. Es la capital de la provincia de Sevilla, s una de las ocho provincias de Andaluci'a. tarde vamos a visitar toda esta regi6n con " y sus parientes... (Oiler, Sr., 8c Gonzalez, 45).
ural similarities and contrasts are dis-Spanish:
buelos no son muy diferentes de los abuelos alquiera de nosotros. Los vemos por la tarde ndo chocolate. En Espana las horas de comer listintas de las de los Estados Unidos. Los oles, por lo general, no desayunan fuerte al por la manana. Toman cafe, chocolate, los rdfios, leche caliente. A veces itin comen panedllos o bollos. Mas tarde, a e las diez y media de la manana, toman el iillo con una bebida. El bocadillo consiste en

mdwich o un panecillo o cosas por el estilo.... i ixerzan entre la una y las tres de la tarde... .ar, Sr., & Gonzalez, 1965: 45).
: tally, following the Expansion del Tema for
, - ;sson there are summary questions, which
nay be supplemented by the teacher. As in
'" j'Ji'/ifl Fernandez, the second lesson follows
— . \ jeriential content of the first, and so forth
— .. boat.
Varieties of Spanish
B„ .. e of the diversity of dialects of Spanish, the
— .«_ exercises for lessons 1 to 27 of Emilio en
• .' t include speakers representing a wide vari-
t- -egional variants. The authors observed:
" trasts between cultures (foreign and native)
to command a disproportionate share of
time. This danger is minimized if discussions
: :onducted completely in the target language
thereby afford true linguistic experience [i.e.,
vtashen's 1980 term "comprehensible input"]
;r, Sr., & Gonzalez 1965: 9).
%. - rning the development of cultural under-lg the authors wrote:
direct objective of foreign language study in i school and lower division college classes ild always be the attainment of communica-skills. Where the setting is entirely different ■ in the culture of the target language, as is the ; , with . . . El espahol por el mundo, the indi-benefit of cultural appreciation is a natural ome (Oiler, Sr., Be Gonzalez 1965: 9).
"' El espahol por el mundo first came on the
" " t three decades ago, one of the common
c. aints was that it was too expensive for many
;chool districts to obtain. Even back in those
i. >f single-digit inflation, it cost something
■3,000 to place La familia Fernandez in a
iom. Although many critics were willing to

concede that the program did achieve its aim of bringing the world of the foreign language into the classroom and of making communicative compe¬tence in the language accessible to students (and even to teachers), they contended that the price tag was too high. In spite of this objection, many school districts and a couple of state boards opted to buy it anyway.
Now, we live in a whole new era of technolo¬gy. The cost effectiveness of video recording and playback equipment has made pragmatic language teaching with a sound-motion-picture component more accessible than at any point in history. For this reason it may be hoped that some of the con¬cepts embodied in the foreign language program discussed in this chapter will continue to con¬tribute Ln a small way to more-effective classroom language teaching.
1 My father, John Oiler, Sr. died in September 1980. Therefore, this chapter is put together from intro¬ductory remarks which he had written years earlier for the two levels of El espahol por el mundo and from the experience I had in using El espahol por el mundo at midschool, high school, and university levels. I would like to think that what is said here is entirely consistent with the theory and practice behind the programs, but for any discrepancies I must take full responsibility. Thanks are expressed to the publisher (Encyclopaedia Britannica Films, now Encyclopaedia Britannica Educational Corporation) and to Dr. Angel Gonzalez, the coauthor of level II, Emilio en Espana.
2 English is used here to ensure comprehension, but, of course, in the actual lessons only Spanish was used.
3 It shouid be noted that all the dialogue and mate¬rial in the films and written exercises throughout level II is in Spanish. The material is graded so as to become progressively more complex, and vocabulary entry is still controlled carefully as it was in La familia Fernandez, but the rapidity of introduction of new vocabulary and a diversity of forms of expression is accelerated.

Chapter 6 / An Intesrated Pragmatic Curriculum 61

From Role Play to the Real World
Raymond J. Rodrigues and Robert H. White
any theoreticians speak of the "real" world as if classrooms were not in it. But any classroom, in any place at any time, is just as real as Grand Central Station in New York or the zoo in Albuquerque. However, what is often missing from the fictionalized material taught in the classroom is a comprehensible connection to the classroom or any¬thing else in the real world. The key to making the connection between the sheltered fic¬tions of the "class womb" (as an unintending punster once called it) and the less forgiving real world (to which those fictions must relate if they are to relate to anything at all) is to base the classroom fictions (the role playing, the storytelling, the acting, the dramatization, the films, books, etc.) in the real world to start with. For instance, if the supermarket role playing fits real-life contexts, students who master the fictional cases will be able to handle the real ones. "Fig simple" as Robert Newton Peck (1980) would say, but true. The only real bridge from vicarious experience in film, acting, role play, etc. that can get us across the gulf of imagination into the hard and real world must be created by using materials in the classroom that are grounded in real experience in the first place. We don't really have to invent the world. God already did that. All we have to do is relate the target language to the world in a way that our students can comprehend. Here, as in the previous chapter, the principle of multiple passes through a given text is apparent. The initial phase involves a simple dialog which is eventually committed to memory. Subsequent role playing and dramatizations lead to deeper saturation to be followed by open-ended activities with improvisation, culminating in a field trip where the student encounters the ultimate chal-lenge of facing off with one or more untutored natives. Later, even deeper comprehension of the target language material is ensured by debriefing back in the classroom with expand¬ed narratives and additional enactments or embellishments of the field-trip experience.
ecome evident to many teachers of ESL stu- need to function successfully in everyday situations
tat most of the available texts and materials and in future settings where they will be using
sd on artificial sequencing of grammatical English.
:es and stilted, often irrelevant, dialogues Another principle derived from current
lies. Only recently, with the stimulation of research concerns the comparison of first and sec-
research in second language learning and ond language learning in children and older learn-
5, have new materials appeared based on ers and the possibility of patterning second
ununicative needs of students. These new language learning experiences on the model of nat-
L insights and materials have finally accept- ural first language learning. Just as children, in
nciple often discovered in the past by class- learning the first language, are exposed to a vaxi-
:achers: that effective ESL teaching must be ety of experiences and accompanying language in
in helping students learn the language they a supportive environment to which they creatively
Chapter 7 / From Role Play to the Real World 63

>hasis in this phase is for the student to con-: on the meaning of the material. In addi-
least ten guide questions are presented to lent following the narration. These are con-. from the material in the narration and are i to be answered by students with some of ;uage they have heard. What is encouraged the beginning of full responses using Ian-nderstood from meaningful presentations, beginning classes a large difference in the sf students to respond to the guide quei-II exist. Many students will be too timid or co attempt responses in English, although tening comprehension may be good. For :udents, therefore, an additional phase ig the learning of short dialogues will be and will give beginning students the conti->f actually using the language. The dia-hould be taken from the language of the ed situations, presented in no more than les but using the natural yet simple lan-ppropriate to the experience. Dialogues ■resented orally by the teacher or other stu-rith repetition and guided memorizing, ith visual clues. Reading and writing can ,in in the dialogue phase with the teacher arts containing the dialogue sentences and
learning to print their own word cards e dialogues and arranging them in sen-s they memorize. These word cards can used for reviewing dialogues, constructing tences with the same and new words, and
activities based on these sight words, ill help the student make the transition to other relevant text materials and stories, three students may be assigned to practice ague until they feel confident enough to t orally to the class.
ding of confidence through these memo-mentations will lead to students' participa¬te playing and dramatic activities. After solved in several structured situations and ig related dialogues, students will have :ed enough of the basic language associat-the open language experience that they tble to respond to role-playing situations by the teacher. These should be directly D segments of the original open language ce. Students will be given short descrip-a situation and asked to act out the roles

t the people hi these settings without looking at
-- Tted dialogue material previously memo-
' TeJ he role-playing activities should be similar
re "■» aarratives and dialogues, but sufficiently
a' --_ t to encourage freer use of the language.
1 - onghout the structured situation, dialogue, nil '«.* J-plsyhng phases, the teachers become diag-ro-l ■■ ns, noting errors as the students attempt to rt,- -_, present dialogues, or act out role-playing s *-. RS. The teacher can categorize the errors, mv * jhonological (pronunciation), grammatical, v. - aantic errors made by a large number of ='j.-> * jmbers, a small group, or an individual stu-ta£— " is from these errors that the teacher plans
•„■ " 'late practice activities. Recent second lan-t .5L aiming research has indicated that making --. s a positive illustration of the students' a: - ~ s to internalize language forms by develop-,«■_ (otheses based on the language material :».■ :ar. For example, students may have
- . ;sized from many examples and contexts
: ■ tr-ed ending indicates past tense. As a
-t J ibey may overextend this hypothesis and
inappropriately to an irregular verb and ■i . i error such as eatetf instead of ate. Errors
- . this may disappear after the student has
posed to the language for a longer period u" ' but the teacher must eventually judge that
- -_- tent error continues to interfere with mean-
. provide practice activities for correction or c - ion of this error. A valuable use of pub-
■ s -. iSL text material is to provide the teacher
■ ' ady-made practice activities for most pre-
t. =" errors. These texts are usually organized
v * bles of contents and indexes that make it
* i for the teacher to select quickly the prac-
eded for phonological, grammatical, and ■■.. ic errors. In this phase, the teacher and " udents may work with individuals or small i" " , guiding them through the appropriate - activities. After ESL students have learned '<■ ' and write at basic levels, they may work at •~- aterials individually or in pairs. s evaluation phase of this model is based on ■ " y principle: the effectiveness of language ion is best tested by assessing the student's he language in the actual experience. Thus, lents completing the phases of the unit are o repeat the open language experience to hey were first exposed and during which they may have only been able to listen. For exam¬ple, in an experience involving shopping at a supermarket, students are given a shopping list and a sum of money and asked to bring back a report on their activity and evidence of a success¬ful shopping trip. If the actual field experience cannot be undertaken, a simulation of the experi¬ence may be arranged in a classroom. Students who are unsuccessful in their perfor¬mance would then be assigned repeated dialogues, role playing, and error-based activities followed by repetitions of the open-language experience. This recycling of some students need not prevent the introduction of another open language experience unit for the whole class. Although some publishers are attempting to produce textbooks based on the communicative needs of ESL students with related phonological, grammatical, and vocabulary activities, they are unable to predict completely the needs of thou¬sands of ESL students representing all ages and backgrounds. Only teachers struggling to meet the needs of their students can use interview tech¬niques and interaction with students to determine and predict student communication needs and build practice activities related to the actual lan¬guage errors of students. The following outline for an open language experience unit plan and sample unit is offered as a possible model for teachers to use in their efforts to create more meaningful materials for their ESL students. MODEL OPEN LANGUAGE EXPERIENCE UNIT OUTLINE I. Determining needs and interests A. List the communication needs and inter¬ ests of the target group. B. In what settings will they be using English? C. In what settings are they currently need¬ ing English? H. Planning open language experience activities A. Select one of these needs or interests, and develop an open language experience activity in which the students can use their natural language learning abilities. I Chapter 7 / From Role Play to the Real World 65 s: i\" structured situation and dialogues. Note student errors. analysis Analyze student phonological (pronuncia-tion), gramatical, and semantic error from the structured situations, dialogues, and other activities. Categorize the errors: 1. Common class 2. Small group 3. Individual practice—plan practice activities for class, small groups, and individuals that us on their particular errors and their needs. peated open language experience—ask dents to repeat the open language experi-e and report the results. cycling—have students who were unsuc-sful in the open language experience dialogues and practice activities. and present a new open language expe-unit. PLAN FOR AN OPEN LANGUAGE • SHOPPING AT THE SUPERMARKET i report on the open language experience erials used with an ESL class of Vietnam-;ees living in Albuquerque, New Mexico. (Assessment ator was present at the first session, and him the students were asked questions he nature of their English needs. For , each student was asked how long he or been in the United States and whether or r she had had any formal schooling in his Lative country. Students were also asked ids of places—bank, post office, grocery .rport, bakery—they had been to in the ■tates, and what they felt to be their most English language needs. planning the Open Language Experience Activity i been to a grocery store in the United ach student expressed a need to learn n system of money; hence, a grocery ; was chosen for the open language he need and current use of English in aving been established. i translator explained the purpose of the class was taken on a field trip to a orhood grocery store. We took a gro-I us and empty pop bottles to return, iie class was videotaped observing and he teacher. The teacher asked the gro-rices, compared prices of items and 3 of what items to buy, went through t stand, got change, said goodbye to /ent home, and put the groceries into tor and cupboards. The videotape of .ce, as well as the actual objects pur-» used as vehicles or props for later rious phases of grocery shopping, otape was also used as a basis for dis-ass, for error analysis and correction, imusement and motivation of the sru-ting, the final stage of the open Ian-ience, when the students went to a narket with a grocery list and pur-;ries "on their own," another video-de and used in class for error analysis sment of teaching success. ;e phases of grocery shopping dealt report include making a grocery list, jceries, and going through the check- Structured Situations NMT.Itl-'zA o make a grocery list. I get a pencil of paper to write down what I need. ' ■" lat do I need? I open my refrigerator. I ' ■■■ need eggs. I need butter. I write down ~ - utter. Also, I need orange juice. I have ™ -" *etables—onions, carrots, celery, and ■- ) I don't need to buy any vegetables. ny fruit? I have oranges. But I don't pies. I need apples. So here is my gro- " " c, eggs, butter, orange juice, apples. Guide Questions 1. What is a grocery list? 2. How do I make a grocery list? 3. What do I open to see what I need? 4. Which vegetables do I have? 5. What vegetables do I need to buy? 6. What fruit do I have? 7. What fruit do I need to buy? 8. Which three dairy products do I need to buy? 9. What kind of fruit juice do I need to buy? 10. What items are on my grocery list? Narrative B At the grocery store I get a grocery can. I look at my grocery list. It says: milk, eggs, butter, orange juice, apples. I find the dairy aisle. I put a quart of skimmed milk and a dozen eggs in my cart. I see that a pound (lb.) of butter costs $1.99. I see that a pound (lb.) of margarine costs $0.97.1 put the margarine, not the butter, in my cart. I go to the produce aisle. I see red apples and green apples. I choose six green apples. I find the canned orange juice. I put one can of pure, unsweetened orange juice into my cart. Guide Questions 1. What is a grocery cart? 2. What is on my grocery list? 3. How much milk do I choose? 4. How many eggs do I buy? How many eggs are there in a dozen? 5. Why do I choose margarine instead of butter? 6. In what aisle do I find apples? 7. What kinds of apples do I see? 8. Which apples do I choose? 9. How many apples do I buy? 10. What kind of orange juice do I put into my cart? Narrative C At the checkout register I put my groceries on the counter. The quart of milk costs $0.59, the pound of margarine costs $0.97, the dozen eggs cost $0.68. The clerk says, "The apples are $0.59 a pound; that will be $0.74." The can of juice costs $0.79. The total is $3.77 plus tax. Tax is $0.15. The total bill is $3.92.1 give the clerk a five dollar bill. He gives me a penny, "$3.93," another penny, "$3.94," another penny, "$3.95," a nickel, "$4.00," a dollar bill, "$5.00." He puts my gro- Chapter 7 / From Role Play to the Real World 67 DISCUSSION QUESTIONS - w can the teacher serve as "diagnostician" (or learning counselor) during role-play activities? In cre-• ig drills for difficult points, why is it essential to link every element of every drill to actual facts .. >wn in some way by the students?
1 : authors say that "the effectiveness of language instruction is best tested by assessing the student's of the language in the actual experience" {p. 65). How should classroom testing be adjusted to :t this end?
y does surface form matter so much? How will it relate to the success or failure of the supermarket " ? How do you react to the clerk you ask about the napkins, when you can't understand what he or is saying? Role play it. See what you would do.
A w does role play set up the "open language experience"?
r there. It says "Canned Juice."
ise me. Where is the dairy aisle?
c there.
ik you.
're welcome.
ise me. Where is the produce?
■e. See the carrots and lettuce?
yes. Thank you.
're welcome.
"hroush the Checkout Line
i much were the eggs?
izen cost $0.79.
: will be $3.92.
:'s a five dollar bill.
ik you. Here's your change. Have a nice
ik you. Goodbye.
D. How are you?
a. I'm fine, thank you.
: will be $3.92.
' much was the tax on that? A: $0.15.
iks. Here's a five dollar bill.
: change is $1.08. Thank you. Have a nice
ik you. Goodbye.
aying Activities
. the open language field experience of the . small neighborhood grocery store and the ition of having students purchase groceries ;e supermarket, we had several lessons that on role playing. We used an actual grocery 1 props of vegetables, milk cartons, mar-nd butter cartons, and various other gro-ns.
: playing seemed to be the most successful f the open language experience. Students and joked and created language to fit the l. Given the dialogues, which they hadn't ely memorized but which they had under-ic students played with the possibilities of e. Given "Excuse me," to mean "let me :h my grocery cart," one student elaborat-fant to go by you." Given "Where is the ?" another student elaborated, "I want to

hn le celery." Given the format, "I want to buy
fc* in of milk," a student, seeing a knife on the
"- -„ sn counter, expanded the form to say,
. v. se me. I want to buy a knife."
ft - ■ ids particular group of Vietnamese the con-Sii . of native speakers dealing with the students ,- d to be that pronunciation was a serious m. Vietnamese native speakers have difficul-- ■ h the pronunciation of English to such an c^,_ - that it is not advisable to ignore it.
particular, this group of students tended to
c £e final consonants of all English words.
T . rord for book [buk] became [bu]; the word
:- » p [kasp] became [kx]. First person, singular,
-. ■ it tense verbs invariably were pronounced

without the final ~s. The final -s in plurals was rarely pronounced. Hence a question such as "What does she eat?" elicited the response, "She eat apple and cookie." Since this response is easily understood by a native speaker, in a "real" con¬versation between a native speaker and a native Vietnamese speaker using English, there was no great effort to correct pronunciation; however, when we were doing drills and patterns, we felt it was very appropriate to concentrate on the pro-nunciation of the final consonants of words, espe¬cially the final -s with the plurals and the final consonant on common words such as book and ship. We focused attention on this problem through a translator, explaining that in English the final consonants and especially the pronunciation of -s's was important. This explanation seemed to help; certainly it facilitated our corrections and their being understood by the students.

Chapter 7 / From Role Play to the Real World 69

forks: Perspective
& leads to bodily and emotional e meanings and intentions clear in d leads to competence in the lan-view with an actor, I think it was :t the lines to one movie script was being a speaker of the language, f'the risks of genuine acts of com-•■ opportunity to gain the necessary pretend (dramatized) acts of corn-dramatizations inevitably occur in out risk. Ask John Rassias, who is stings. Or recall the teacher (see n because he didn't want to "look ie fictionalizing of scenarios can enable the students to build "spe-able them to perform real tasks in er have dared to attempt. In the the target language may be made vard the portrayal of a character, \ with a broad range of practice in , and speech-language pathology, to react to the merits of drama in
not the purpose of this paper, however, to dramatic techniques or argue for their use-The intuitive assumption that drama in the eign language classroom improves oral lication is taken as a given for this study, ipproaches drama in L2 learning from a inguistic perspective. The question to be i is: Presuming that participation in dra-ctivities helps L2 learners improve their

Ltive competence, how can this be 2 psycholinguistic terms; i.e., which al factors can explain why dramatic pear to improve the oral competence rs?
ering this question, practical applica-
na in education and related fields were
eginning with ESL and foreign lan-
;s. Any area that could illustrate the
il basis of drama as a means of achiev-
nal goal was investigated. Research
ree such areas: drama in education,
, ._ w~.v in language classes; psychodrama, as
.'-.; :ed in the mental health field and in profes-
training programs; and role playing in
. * _. .therapy.
ie objectives for using drama are different
sh of these disciplines. In ESL and foreign
ige classes, drama is directed toward lan-
acquisition. In child development, creative
tics encourages the maturation and growth
* _- itive capacity, with particular reference to
skills. Psychodrama helps restore a patient's
- _■ - I health and trains individuals for new social
Speech therapy employs drama to help
£ achieve or regain normal speech behavior
. ■ sterns.
I ispite their differing aims, each of these dis-
: • s appears to use drama for the same funda-
. ■ I reason. It facilitates communication by
„ - - ng certain psychological factors into play
/ elicit the desired behavior in the individual.
. immon factors are motivation, empathy, sen-
' to rejection, self-esteem, and spontaneity.
v * : spontaneity are currently being investigated
■ " the context of L2 acquisition (Schumann,
'' ' The focus of the present study is the insight
r \ actors provide into the psychological effects
c ■. ■ na. The goal is to understand how and why
pation in dramatic activities helps L2 learn-
deve communicative competence,
ie chapter begins with a discussion of the
'- ' nship between drama and each of these psy-
c ;ical factors within the frameworks of the
"? lisciplines mentioned above. Implications for
'<■ ~ rners are suggested throughout the discus- *■ * :ading to a statement of the hypothesis. The "-" " of an informal exploratory study designed : support for the claims made by the hypoth- ncludes the chapter. DRAMA IN EDUCATION: ESL AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE CLASSES Motivation Motivation is the most frequently cited reason for using drama in ESL and foreign language classes. Dramatic activities inspire students to want to learn another language. They are a curative for the frustration and lagging interest which often occur during L2 learning, and they facilitate acquisition of the target language as a result (Hsu, 1975; Via, 1976; Moulding, 1978). The purposefuiness of dramatic activity can provide a strong instrumental motivation for lan¬guage learning. In an intermediate-level class in spoken Chinese for American university students, for example, Hsu (1975) conducted an experiment in drama to develop the students' conversational ability and boost their sinking morale. She struc¬tured the entire course around presentation of a play, making it a group project that required stu¬dents to communicate in Chinese throughout each aspect of preparation. Hsu found the activity to be highly motivating to her students, reactivating a high degree of interest in learning Chinese. Via (1976) also found play production as the culmina¬tion of a language course to be highly motivating to students when teaching English in Japan. Functioning as an end in itself as well as a topic for discussion and analysis, play production creat¬ed a genuine communication need where students had to use natural conversational English in a meaningful context. Play production can also be a source of inte-grative motivation by fostering cultural proximity. A play allows language learners to participate in the new culture, helping them develop a sensitivity as to how speakers of the target language interact with each other. It familiarizes them with the cul¬tural appropriateness of words and expressions to specific settings and social situations. Ideally, this integrative experience should motivate learners to want to achieve a higher degree of language profi¬ciency. Moulding (1978) emphasized that drama pro¬vides the context for a meaningful exchange in which participants see a reason to communicate, and focuses on "how to do things" with the lan¬guage rather than merely on "how to describe Chapter 8 / Why Drama Works 71 . ir mCni upon the ability to partially and tem-" , suspend the functions that maintain one's p " - teoess from others (usually called ego v ,to jies); i.e., to partially and temporarily give ' ,. js separateness of identity. Flexibility, or oe-r ■ .bility of ego boundaries, js the index of rtP-'«.. aility r° take on a new identity. ( iora et al. (1972) hypothesized that the i. j. ro approximate nativelike pronunciation in - ,__' id language is related to the flexibility or r . „-bility of one's ego boundaries. His experi- —e-: "tith alcohol, in which subjects' pronuncia- r.c" a second language was improved after their ingested small amounts of alcohol, seemed :L - old this hypothesis. This led Schumann . ■"" 226) to suggest that "if artificial agents , „ 3 alcohol can foster permeability of ego K ries and reduce inhibitions, then it would -- _ jnreasonable to assume that given the right cr - ^nation of natural psychological factors, ;„- bility of ego boundaries might be possible '. - yone." ors must achieve empathy, or ego perme- i * - in order to give a convincing and meaning- - -formance. Stanislavski believed that they r i_ ■ retend to live out the lives of their charac- -.'.' ways that transcend the play. They must :■'■. - ,eir characters' consciousness by temporari- g up their own identity to take on a new : ion. A common training procedure for .-„" - s to identify with their characters or wish :.'- ere there, and then imagine what they 1 * do (Beutler, 1976). Supporting the notion t " ama fosters empathy in the participants, i» : its such as Shaftel and Shaftel (1952) have ' hat: role play is a successful approach for * " ; positive intergroup relations because it r the individual to understand and relate to : ■ ings of others. s therefore hypothesized that dramatic ;s are an effective way of creating within " - ;sroom setting that "concatenation of nat-:tors" which could make permeability of indaries possible for everyone. If "the nat-tors which induce ego flexibility and lower ons are those conditions which make the - " less anxious, make him feel accepted and im form positive identification with speak-le target language" (Schumann, 1975: 227) irama is one of those natural factors that induce flexibility and lower inhibitions, then one more explanation as to why drama is an effective technique in L2 learning will have been found. DRAMA IN EDUCATION: ENGLISH FOR NATIVE SPEAKERS A dramatic approach to the teaching of English has been practiced for a number of years in the British educational system. Instructors do not use drama to teach about language or the structure of the subject, or to teach about literature. Influenced by psychologists such as Piaget and Vygotsky, the theory of communication guiding the English cur-riculum focuses on personal and emotional experi-ences, imagination, intuition, and sensibility rather than subject matter. The question is not "how drama helps English nor how English helps drama, but how drama, English, movement and the other arts help the child" (Hoetker, 1969: 12). Drama has also found its way into the English curricula of American schools, especially at the elementary lev-els as creative dramatics. This includes a wide range of activities, from mimic play to improvisa-tions and from dramatizations of stories to the eventual enactment of formal plays among older children (Hoetker, 1969). The British and Americans share common assumptions about drama and employ similar techniques. It appears, however, that the goal of using drama in the British system is the total devel-opment of the child, whereas the goal of using drama among American educators more directly and specifically focuses on development of the lan¬guage skills. As a strong advocate of dramatics in the American English curriculum, Moffett (1967: vii) sees drama as the matrix of all language activi¬ties, subsuming speech and engendering the vari¬eties of writing and reading. Rogosheske (1972) cites a number of dedicated supporters of creative dramatics who claim it to be the most effective approach to instruction in the language skills. Motivation Drama can be especially effective with speakers whose skills are considered lower than average. Lazier (1969), for example, tried an experimental 12-week program in drama with a junior high Chapter 8 / Why Drama Works 73 *f,- same holds true for L2 learners. If they •. . ommunicate outside of class, the results ,J -■ .mbarrassing or even harmful. But in role *[i. 'i°g the courage to demonstrate the ability ' ' ^ - 3e second language is in itself a success, j should therefore not be embarrassed by a PO" * 'formance. It follows that they should be i.^ sited using the language in role play than ,n .- fe, and therefore function better than they trr_i — they could. This in turn should raise their <■-■ so-Spontaneity t\- of people who have been through inten- ., , iiodramas suggest a number of recurrent which collectively might be described as intaneity state" (Mann, 1970). It is pro- *cs . at this state, or spontaneity, be added to :-„ Df psychological factors currently being ■ ,t - ted in L2 acquisition. ' ja explains that persons in the spontaneity *:.-:_ - npletely forget about the existence of the i or cease to be concerned about its reac- leir temporal sense alters, and they come \i ime as an "eternal now," where past, pre- ».. - i future are all enfolded in a dreamlike ;e. Of most significance to L2 learning is ; usual gap between thought and expres- s jes to exist. Expression becomes an inte- - - whole" (Mann, 1970: 7-8). Also of :e is the free-flowing creativity that is - * d. "In varying degrees the person in such : acts as though inspired. He draws on s which neither he nor his friends may ■ :>ught he had at his disposal" (Mann,
" 8).
is state can be induced in L2 learners via he usual gap between thought and expres-ch ceases to exist in the native language ase to exist in the second language as well, •elevant to L2 learning is the "free-flowing r* and the ability of the person to draw retofore untapped resources. This might
'-*"* ;he following observation of an ESL stu-aged in role play: "The transformation in ler was unbelievable. He really 'hammed ring the phone conversation and everyone udience noticed" (Hinofotis & Bailey,

Corsini defined spontaneity as "natural, rapid, enforced self-generated behavior to new sit-uations." He explained that people are frequently placed in new situations in which they have to improvise, to do something, to react. To the degree that the response is good, it is satisfying, helps one adjust, and tends to become part of one's repertoire. It is hypothesized that L2 learn¬ers undergo the same psychological process when they confront new linguistic situations in role play. To the degree that they succeed in communi¬cating, the experience is satisfying. It helps them adjust to becoming a speaker of the second lan¬guage and tends to become part of their linguistic repertoire.
Psychodramatic methods and role playing, when adapted to a particular setting, can be remarkably effective for children with relatively poor cogni¬tive and verbal skills (Blatner, 1973). Creative dramatics techniques are used as psychotherapy, as diagnostic observation, and as auditory train¬ing. Although children with speech handicaps must be individually examined and evaluated, they benefit from the group interaction central to creative dramatics.
The value of creative dramatics as an adjunct to speech therapy was demonstrated in a coopera-tive program offered by the creative dramatics classes and speech clinic of the University of Pittsburgh (Mclntyre and McWilliams, 1959). Several children with articulation and stuttering disorders were enrolled in creative dramatics classes along with children whose speech was con-sidered normal. The program was initiated to bridge the gap between therapy at the clinic and everyday speech,-The successful results of this program served to illustrate the correlation of cre-ative dynamics to speech correction. Similarly pos-itive results using creative dramatics to improve articulation were reported by Ludwig (1955), Mclntyre (1958), Mclntyre and McWilliams (1959), and Wessels (Chapter 36). Role-playing techniques have also been adapted for adult apha-sics to help them recover normal speech {Schlanger 5c Schlanger, 1971, also see Damico & Damico, Chapter 29).

Chapter 8 / Why Drama Works 75

i" •
TA3LE S.1 Usefulness of Drama as Perceived by Students8
Class A
in Table 8.1 corresponds to the items on Part I of the questionnaire, ss are based on the following Likert scale responses: 1 = not useful; 2 ■ te useful; 5 = very useful.
is the desired end in itself. For psy
and child development, communicativ.
a prerequisite behavior that must b
before other behaviors, such as socia
and overall development of the child
ur. But it appears to be the commoi
ion that drama can develop and/or elicp
competence in the individual.
application of this assumption to L.
is the basis for the hypothesis of thi
facilitates communication in Ll
by encouraging the following psychologi
rs to operate: heightened self-esteem
, and spontaneity; increased capacir
; lowered sensitivity to rejection.
h formal empirical investigation of thi will be reserved for future research, ; was designed to explore the issui ly. The questionnaire had both a studen acher component. It was aclministered tc SL instructors at the University o ia, Los Angeles, who had recently usec
activities in their classes, and to the 2'
-level students who had participated ii ass A was the regular university section o
in oral communication. Class B was th< extension section of the same course was a course in phonetics also offered b; ty extension. The dramatic activities ii te students participated were scenes fron i improvisations. natizing scenes from plays involved per short scenes (about 8 to 10 minutes each) Lvolved two or three characters. The stu ;re not asked to memorize lines but wen Dok up and say them to the other charac th meaning and feeling. Both the scene: improvisations were videotaped, and thi viewed and discussed their performance: d. classes A and C, improvisations consistec iews of the characters and improvisation! ion the scenes. The interview took placi ifter the scene. The students had to imag - thev were still the characters they had just portr-posd-Ine ' sicdfr ci» '""• '• " r.e* ,ir«. " •n "- so c--iat-m.t:- ,ed imd respond accordingly to questions -y the instructor and the other students. jrovisation followed immediately after- J he instructor described a situation to the ■» similar to the scene they had just enact- vith a significant twist in character or plot. src given 5 minutes to consult with one . and then performed. Class B participated ir.e kind of interview, but for them impro- s were a separate activity based upon a / game. The students were assigned char- » cs in pairs and were presented with a dra- ■uation to improvise in front of the class. The Student Questionnaire I'--- •:~ an d c" * .nalre -- I ere 24 respondents to the student compo-:he questionnaire: the 13 students enrolled A., 6 of the 10 students enrolled in class B, 5 students enrolled in class C. The ques- Potential area of usefulness Improvins pronunciation Scenes from plays Improvisations Improving intonation and expression Scenes from plays Improvisations Gaining self-confidence Scenes from plays Improvisations Becoming less inhibited or less embarrassed when speaking in front of a group Scenes from plays Improvisations Increasing/enriching vocabulary Scenes from plays Learning more about American Culture Scenes from plays tionnaire was designed to elicit their subjective responses to the psychological aspects of drama being investigated. In order to avoid making this purpose known to the students, it was presented to them as part of the final course evaluation, and distractor items were included which focused on concrete objectives for using drama, e.g., improv¬ing pronunciation and expression. (Note: See Appendix 8.1 for the student component of the questionnaire. Each item is labeled with the psy¬chological factor it was designed to test, and the distractor items are identified.) Part I asked the students to evaluate the use¬fulness of participating in (1) scenes from plays and (2) improvisations. Table 8.1 summarizes the results by collapsing the data from these two sec-tions according to the areas of usefulness being evaluated. The items were evaluated on a five-point Likert scale. The mean scores for each class were calculated separately in order to capture any differences that might appear between the oral Class B mean (n = 6) Class C mean (n = 5) Overall mean (N=24) 3.5*> 3.2 3.6 3.4
2.7 3.2 3.4 2.95
4.6 3.2 4.2 4.1
3.6 4.0 3.6 3.7
3.9 4.2 4.0 4.0
4.3 4.2 4.2 4.25

4.3 4.0 3.6 4.1
4.4 4.7 4.2 4.33
3.0 3.4 3.4 3.0
3.0 3.0 4.2 3.2
; a little useful; 3 - somewhat useful;

Chapter 8 / Why Drama Works 77

TABLE 8 3 Desire to Participate in More Dramatic Activities3
-—■ Class A Class B Class C Overall
IK" c % % % %
LCSJO""' : (n = 13) (n = 6) (n = 5) (N=24)
Fa" Dramatic activity Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No
- Scenes from plays (with script) 92 8 50 50 80 20 79 21
; Improvisations (without script) 92 8 83 17 100 0 92 8


3le 8.3 correspond to the items on Part III of the questionnaire.

er -■ -ii""
GO' '
C. i
[Table 8.2) indicate that students activities "quite a bit." (Scenes = 4.0; ons = 4.1.) Seventy-nine percent : desire to participate in more scenes :nt indicated that they would like to rovisations (Table 8.3). ining why they would or would not ipate in more dramatic activities (Part s commented on the following: the >r "fun" of drama; ways in which lelped them achieve the objectives of ley were taking, e.g., improved pro-.nd intonation; learning more about Ittire and becoming acquainted with nerican writers. Some students com-isychological issues, such as drama i "loosen up," and improvisations express themselves and their feelings, ■mmented on how. drama helped them nfident when speaking in front of a : were four negative comments, three xred to the scripted scenes from plays, udent was negative about drama in lining, "I just don't like to act."
Self Esteem
8.2 indicates (items 1 and 7), the stu¬
ck " - valuation of their performance (3.8)
" lan their recollection of how they felt
pressed themselves in English at the
' ~ 'his suggests that while their feelings
bility at the time of performance had
~- positive, the postviewing raised their
[t might explain why overall the stu-Lt scenes (4.0) and especially improvi-5} had been quite useful in helping

them gain self-confidence in speaking English (Table 8.1, items lc and 2c).
Empathy was evaluated in terms of the degree of difficulty students experienced in understanding and identifying with the characters they portrayed. As Table 8.2 reveals (items 2 and 4), they experi-enced very little difficulty in understanding their characters (1.7) and only slightly more difficulty in identifying with them (2.4).
Sensitivity to Rejection
Feelings of nervousness and embarrassment were the criteria used for determining sensitivity to rejection. The overall responses reported in Table 8.2 (items 3 and 5) indicate that the students had been slightly less than "somewhat" nervous (2.6) and embarrassed (2.6). In spite of this moderate degree of uneasiness, their overall responses to how useful scenes and improvisations had been in help¬ing them become less inhibited or less embarrassed when speaking in front of a group (Table 8.1, items Id and 2d) were 4.1 and 4.33, respectively.
None of the items specifically evaluated spon-taneity. However, in response to the open-ended questions which asked if participating in scenes from plays and improvisations had helped stu-dents communicate more effectively in any other way (Part I, lg and 2e), five students commented either that drama had helped them respond "off the top of their heads" or that it had helped them respond more quickly to unexpected questions and/or situations.

Chapter 8 / Why Drama Works 79

Studcrr, Questionnaire—Evaluation of Dramatic Activities
tions to the dramatic activities that you participated in this quarter would be very much appreciated. : ■. swerasthoughtfullyandaccuratelyaspossible.
PART I: Circle the number that most closely reflects your, opinion.
1. SCENES FROM PLAYS (using script)
How useful was acting out a scene from a play for you in each of the following areas?
g) Did acting out scenes help you communicate more effectively in any other way? Please explain.
id T-C, teacher of class C, the universii on course in pronunciation. (Note: Tl was the instructor of class A and felt ■ jpriate to respond to her own questioi rherefore, the instructor who had taugj ■ rersity section of the same course the prev irter, and used the same dramatic activiti r students, responded instead. The author nts are included separately at the end of tl on.)
i and T-C found that drama relaxed the s. T-A commented, "I do think the use < early in the terra helped to lessen the ne ss the students felt about speaking i in front of a group." She also discovert ama appeared to create a safe classroo:-iment. "The students benefited from tl s almost as they would if they were inte >vith Americans, but they were not undi -2 to be themselves." T-B commented th; enhanced the class atmosphere and relaxe ients' anxiety about speaking in front < :her and making oral presentations. SI hat "the scenes from plays provided stru< here students could 'loosen up' [the We progressed from this to role-play." ) found drama to be a really welcome relii le normal classroom activity, and to t ciotivating: "Affectively the implementatic la in the classroom was very positive, j t only the more outgoing students partic iut also (and surprisingly very willingly) tr y very passive ones." She also noted th. c activities helped her students lose the inhibitions and enabled them to assurr lities very much in contrast to their owi : reference to empathy was made by T-l slained that drama facilitates adoption of t identity. ; author's own experience with class . ' supports the observations of these sti id teachers. The students seemed to unde: insformation when they "stepped out" ( iroom into an imaginary setting and situ; pecially the shy students who normall nly when called upon—and then in a quit .tarn voice. They became more extrovertec g as well as responding to dialogue. Rol seemed to stimulate them to activate the :ompetence of the language. The more vei i extroverted students were also trans¬it- :<.. Their speech became more fluent, and 'X' r tonation and inflection more nativelike, ' *. __ .^ly during improvisations. CONCLUSION j- , - per has taken a speculative and theoretical , Ji to drama in L2 learning, with the intent *. g the groundwork and providing the inspi- --- - :or further investigation into the area. Its j —i i ; was to present the hypothesis that drama -c - ly affects L2 learning by encouraging the czz- ' an of certain psychological factors which - _ - e oral communication, i.e., heightened self- ».-;■_ motivation, and spontaneity; increased c_" - r for empathy; lowered sensitivity to rejec- i - us hypothesis was based upon logic, analo- ,( „■ -srience, and intuition. It was founded upon a ■-" cure review and was informally tested via -i - lent/teacher questionnaire. 1 he responses to the questionnaire can be APPENDIX 8.1 a) Improving pronunciation b) Improving intonation and expression c) Gaining self-confidence in speaking English d) Becoming less inhibited, or less embarrassed when speaking in front of a group e) Increasing/enriching your vocabulary f) LearningmoreaboutAmericanculture taken as valid indicators, there may be some justi¬fication for the hypothesis, and drama in L2 learn¬ing is a promising area for further research. This study suggests several research possibilities. One would be a formal test of the hypothesis, i.e., to examine the psychological factors individually to determine if they are positively correlated with drama and if drama acts as a causal variable in fostering them in the participant. Related research would include further investigation into the rela¬tionship between each of the psychological factors and L2 acquisition. Another project would be to test the assumption behind the hypothesis: that dramatic activities in the ESL/foreign language classroom improve oral communication skills. Along these lines, Wesche (1977) has already found that role play correlates highly with a num¬ber of learning variables. It is hoped that these suggestions will stimu¬late further research and that this theoretical study will lead to additional investigations of drama in second language learning from a psycholinguistic perspective. Not A little Somewhat Quite Very useful useful useful useful useful 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 Chapter 8 / Why Drama Works 81 hout script) ou in each of the following areas? HOTES H A little Somewhat Quite Very useful useful useful useful 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 rway? Please explain. re, and try to remember how you felt about verall I was pleased with my ability. :elt I was able to express myself with ease, A 5 little Somewhat Quite Very difficul 2 3 4 5 little Somewhat Quite Very nervou; 2 3 4 5 little Somewhat Quite Very difficul 2 3 4 5 little Somewhat Quite Very a bit much 2 3 4 5 little Somewhat Quite Very a bit much 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 l to gratefully acknowledge the valuable and : comments and suggestions of Frances nd John Schumann. I would also like to i Brinton and Meredith Pike for their con-the empirical study. pisC'l SSION QUESTIONS 1 i ,'S Guiora's "ego permeability" idea figure in drama? Why does drama, assuming that Stern, -_-- w, Guiora, and others are correct, have the effect of lowering inhibitions and the affective 2 _ he motivating aspect of preparing for a part in a drama or a role play, how can acting help ., acquire the target language? ; . "the matrix of all language activities" (p. 73)? Consider a difficult job interview, checking otel where the cockroaches shake the building when they walk, taking out the garbage or a latrine, handing in an assignment to a teacher you want to impress, saying hello to a special i ' you make of the faa that 79% of Stern's respondents say they are willing to participate in :I contrived scenes while 92% want to do more improvisations? I liked it very much. It was better than 1 thousht it would be 4 5 answer, and to add any other participated in this quarter.) Chapter 8 / Why Drama Works 83 PART 2 IMMERSION AND ELEMENTARY SCHOOL LANGUAGE INSTRUCTION W« at, after all, is immersion? In a recent article, Genesee, Holobow, Lambert, and Chartrand (1989) explain:1 In 1965, a group of English-speaking parents, educators, and researchers from a sub¬urb of Montreal instituted a new approach to second language teaching in the public school system (Lambert &c Tucker, 1972). This approach, called immersion, entailed the use of the second language (French in this case) as the medium of regular curricu¬lum instruction. The students, none of whom spoke French upon entry to school, received instruction in their core subjects (e.g., math, science) from teachers who were native French speakers. The rationale was that the second language would be acquired incidentally as part of the students' general cognitive, academic, and social development in school. In other words, the students would acquire the target lan¬guage in order to get on with their education. This approach was consistent with the¬ories of first language development which argue that children acquire their first language, without direct or systematic tuition, in the context of significant and mean¬ingful communication with mature speakers of the language (Genesee, 1984). The immersion approach differs from traditional second language teaching alternatives in that the latter focus on direct language instruction so that classroom activities are taken up with learning vocabulary lists, verb forms, and grammar rules (Richards &c Rodgers, 1986). There is an emphasis on correct language usage in the absence o£ real communication and, in fact, such courses often leave students with knowledge of the grammar of the language but with little ability to communicate in it. Their children's inability to communicate in French outside the classroom prompt¬ed the Montreal parents to seek alternative strategies to teach French (Lambert &: Tucker, 1972). Interestingly, recent trends in second and foreign language teaching emphasize "integrated" or "content-based" second language approaches which reflect the same underlying rationale as immersion although on a more limited scale (see Snow, Met, 6c Genesee, 1989). Since its inception in Quebec some 25 years ago, a variety of immersion pro¬grams have been developed (Genesee, 1987). They vary primarily in terms of the 1 The following quotation is used by permission of the authors cited and the Modern Language Journal. PART 2 / Immersion and Elementary School Instruction 85 *,' the target language is used as the principal , and late alternatives) and in terms of the for regular curriculum instruction is also now available in a variety o£ lan-, Hebrew, Spanish, and Chinese. There are used for curriculum instruction are now offered in many different es in the U.S.A.). to the effectiveness of immersion in its of immersion has been attributed to 84) and to the fact that the participating sru-stic groups. Lambert has argued that immer-ducation experience for majority language with opportunities to acquire an additional and culture. Thus, English-speaking chil-.cipate successfully in immersion programs .heir "Anglo" identity are not threatened by . One would expect that immersion pro-qually successful (e.g., French students in lildren in English, Catalan, or Arabic immer-cautioned against the simple application of .ducation of minority language children; for in all-English immersion, or Turkish-immersion (Genesee, 1984; Lambert, 1980). light pose a threat to the students' home lan-oth their linguistic and academic develop-as "subtractive bilingualism" (pp. 250-251). " apt to lead to "subtractive bilingualism': teacher or researcher, as Krashen points d of "immersion." However, there are a that get good results consistent-mcreasingly well understood (Campbell, ion offers a variety of choices for teachers It begins by examining elementary pto-and post-secondary education. (1993) has shown that immersion in .ew as it might have seemed to be back in bilingual schools were well known in the tury until about World War I (also see about that time, they disappeared, not to 5. until about the time of the Bilingual tashen reviews the research on U.S. bilin-e shows that, when they are done right, e acquisition, they work well. And, even particularly well-developed plan, bilin-. They do not work any less well than rate, because of the changing demo-world, it is certain that much greater ilingual and immersion-type programs in the twenty-first century. The reason is explained succinctly by Spencer Kagan (1990: Chapter 2, p. 7): Our population is shifting in three ways: First, an increasing percentage of stu¬ dents are living in urban centers. Second, racial diversity is increasing. Third, in many key cities and states, we are about to hear loud and clear from a "new majority." ... The rate of urbanization, world-wide is increasing logarithmically. In 1800 only 2.4% of the world lived in urban centers; by 1900 the number was about 10%. By 1950 the figure was 25% . In fact, by 1990 in California (the most populous state in the U.S.), the per-centage of Anglo students had already slipped beneath the 50% mark. Ethnic minorities had already become the majority. A large number of these minority chil¬dren, who are now in our schools in ever-increasing numbers, also have as their primary language some system other than English. They are apt to be classed, in the new alphabet soup, as LEPs (students of "limited English proficiency"). Scarcella (1990) has recommended that we get to know our minority lan¬guage populations and conserve our minority language resources (also see Cummins, 1986). Not only is it important to empower minority students, as Scarcella has emphasized along with Cummins and others, by giving them full access to the majority language system and all its benefits, but wouldn't every schoolchild be enriched if "being educated" (especially in the U.S.) would come to mean "knowing more than one language"? For one thing, it would help to rid the U.S. of the epidemic of what I call "monoglottosis"—a terminal case of monolin-gualism (also see Simon, 1980, The Tongue-Tied American). It's an insidious, debilitating disease that captures its victims so completely that they remain alto¬gether unaware of their handicapped condition. To those afflicted, the symptoms are imperceptible. They are captured in a monolingual prison whose walls are invisible to them but thick enough to keep the worlds of other peoples out of view. Here I am inevitably reminded of the eloquent statement of my colleagues Sherman and-Phyllis Wilcox in their book Learning to See (1991: 1-2) where they recommend in the continuation of their title, American Sign Language as a Second Language. In their Preface they say: Foreign language teachers often tell us that the goal of teaching a second language is to propel students beyond the limits of their own world, to encourage them to see through the language and culture of another people (Bugos, 1980). Such a goal is entirely appropriate for teachers of American Sign Language (ASL). In the best lan¬guage classrooms, students are treated to an extended voyage into a new and exciting world. They learn to talk about the familiar in unfamiliar ways, to consider values that may seem questionable. ASL students, too, are exposed to a different world. They are learning a new language, one that is unlike any they are likely to have experienced before. ASL is, in every sense of the word, a foreign language. ASL students are also encouraged to view the world though the eyes of a different culture. The Deaf way of looking at the world is ... a foreign culture to second language students .... Entry into a foreign land is never easy. The first step must be to learn the lan¬guage and culture of the people who live there. For students who wish to visit the world of Deaf people, ASL classes are the door—learning to see is the key. In their crusade to see ASL accepted as a basis for fulfilling the foreign lan¬guage requirement in U.S. schools, the Wilcoxes have been joined by people like PART 2 / Immersion and Elementary School Instruction 87 e (1984, 1988), and others (see Wil< ■rtant languages of the Deaf world car "allow us, finally, to see the voices i ir eyes and write with their heart.M i't all school children be guaranteed a higl iguages? Surely Deaf children ought to b( to extend and develop fully their skills ir rm for their situation), but they also ougbj , which is an entirely different system (oj inguage) that will be of great use to them Kretschmer (Chapter 10), all school chit gree of proficiency in more than one laa .nadian-style immersion programs (Bruck id the Kretschmers contend that even chil ge disordered" or "learning disabled" car Dre reasons why this is so are given by tin g all our children to become bilingual id Mary Lynn Redmond, is pertinent anc hern state, North Carolina, has taken thi ears (kindergarten through grade five) o: 2n. In addition, the plan, adopted in 1985 riio choose to do so of continuing work ir '.. Chapter 12, by Helena Curtain, goes % ; that work can be weaved into a tapestrj .tary school. Her thoughts take us all the ning comprehension to literacy in the tar CHAPTER 9 Bilingual Education Works Stephen D. Krashen EDITOR'S INTRODUCTION D oes study of subject matter and the acquisition of literacy in the child's primary lan¬guage, when it is not English, retard the later acquisition of English? The research is ewed here by Krashen. The answer is clear. Growth in the primary language is not a ■ ■ tat to subsequent acquisition of English. In fact, it appears that there are some deft- ••. ■ advantages to be had by promoting development in the child's strongest language. 1. ■, of course, the term bilingual suggests proficiency in at least two languages. thermore, empowerment in any sociopolitical context generally requires access to the • . 'n language (or languages) of that context. Therefore, in the U.S., bilingual programs ' . i work inevitably promote (rather than discourage) the acquisition of English. What ■ f come as a surprise to the critics of bilingual programming- is that it can greatly * ■ \ch majority language children as well as minority children. Krashen's readable review ' he research prepares the ground for the argument in Chapter 10 (Andrade et ah) sug- . Hng that all our children ought to have the privilege of knowing at least two lan- . ges. Bilingualism, rather than invoking fear or mistrust, ought to engender hope and }ect across cultures. The aim of bilingualism for the twenty-first century, or preferably '.tilingualism for the majority of our schoolchildren, is an objective much to be pre- ed over the prevailing monolingualism of the United States in the twentieth century. THE RESEARCH SUPPORTING BILINGUAL EDUCATION : of the case for bilingual education is that dples underlying successful bilingual edu-re the same principles that underlie suc-language acquisition in general. These We acquire a second language by under-; messages, by obtaining comprehensible ■lackground knowledge can help make see¬page input more comprehensible, and can ist in the acquisition of the second lan- 3. The development of literacy occurs in the same way as second language acquisition does. As Goodman (1982) and Smith (1982) have put it, "we learn to read by reading," by making sense of what is on the page. In turn, reading is the major source of our competence in vocabulary, spelling, writing style, and grammar. (For research evidence supporting these principles, see Goodman, 1982; Smith, 1982; Krashen, 1985a, 1985b, 1989a.) The Importance of the First Language One of the most salient features of a bilingual edu-cation program is the use of the first language as the medium of instruction. The first language can help in the following ways: Chapter 9 / Bilingual Education Works 89 ould be very useful to get this information ay in English, rather than getting it gradu-you acquire French. If you get it right le world around you will be much more tensible, and you will thus acquire French ickly. one who agrees with this, in my opinion, vith the philosophy underlying bilingual ■n. >MS OF BILINGUAL EDUCATION
oments most often heard against bilingual •n are: (1) it doesn't work— research on 1 programs is inconsistent and contxadicto-2) there is a better option—immersion, re is a widespread perception that research 'lingual education is a failure and that stu-bilingual education programs do not proficiency in English. What are the facts?
ins Bilingual Education and lish Medium Programs
"unexamined" bilingual programs are d to "submersion" programs (programs glish as the medium of instruction with no modification for meeting the linguistic limited English proficient (LEP) students), lersion with pullout English as a Second :e (where LEP students are separated from proficient students for some part of the ay in order to receive English as a Second :e [ESL] instruction), there is typically no in terms of English language achieve-"unexamined" program is simply one -stigators have labeled "bilingual'' without additional detail about how the pro-organized. Such programs may or may fully consistent with the principles dis-arlier.)
ortunately, the results of these compar-.ve been interpreted as negative, as show-bilingual education doesn't work. Some of blem is how the results are expressed, md Ross (1986), for example, reportH +u" g results for English language achievi insitional bilingual education and su grams are compared:

Number of Studies
nal bilingual education better 8
rence 14
;ion better 6
issell and Ross concluded that "seventy-one
- -. c of the studies show transitional bilingual
L, „ ion (TBE) programs to be no different or
■ * " than submersion (p. 399). This is, of
true—in 20 out of 28 cases, TBE is no bet-
u - worse. But one could also conclude that
1 just as good, if not better, than submersion r-% ms 79 percent of the time (22 out of 28
- reial scholars have pointed out that when
al education is shown to be just as effective
English programs, this is a remarkable result
s ,. means that the children have acquired just
n h English with significantly less exposure to
r i. This confirms the underlying theory of
al education. Some of the critics—but not
— ive missed this point entirely (see Rossell
iss, 1986: 407, for this discussion).
recent study (Rossell, 1990) merits detailed
. . ion because of the importance attached to
elusions in the popular press. Rossell com-
i program labeled bilingual education and a
.t ESL program in the Berkeley (California)
d School District. No description of
1* :y's bilingual education program was pro-
. _ other than the fact that it was labeled
ual education" and that instruction was in
^ I 30 to 50 percent of the time. Rossell con-
«. , after a series of regression analyses, that
;vas no difference between the two pro-
L Interestingly, there is evidence of a slight
■> irity for bilingual education. In her Table 1
*' Proficiency Test scores for students in
■ " K-12), the regression coefficient for partici-
in bilingual education is positive and reach-
- " 10 level for a one-tailed test (Rossell would
ily call for a two-tailed test here, however),
another analysis Rossell compared
C -nia Test of Basic Skills (CTBS) scores for
al and ESL pull-out students after "reclassi-i." Rossell concluded that these data show :erence between the two groups. For each

subtest of the CTBS, however, the regression coef¬ficient for participation in bilingual education was positive, and in the case of math, it reached the .05 level for a two-tailed test, which Rossell did not indicate.
Rossell also compared Berkeley LEP children's performance on California Assessment for Progress (CAP) tests to performance by LEP chil¬dren in two districts considered to have "exem¬plary" bilingual programs, Fremont and San Jose (Krashen & Biber, 1988). Rossell reported no sig¬nificant difference among the children in the three districts in reading, and reported that the Berkeley students excelled in math.
There are several problems with this conclu¬sion. First, this analysis does not compare gain scores nor does it show how rapidly children reach norms. It considers LEP children as a group. This comparison is only valid if, in fact, LEP children in all three districts entered their respective systems at the same level of competence, and if all three districts used similar criteria for exiting children. This may not be the case. According to Rossell's analysis of reclassified children in Berkeley, many children scored very well on CTBS long before they were exited—in CTBS Reading, for example, children in ESL pull-out scored at the 33rd per¬centile two years before reclassification and at the 54th percentile one year before, while children in bilingual education who were reclassified scored at the 35th percentile two years before reclassifica¬tion and near the 60th percentile one year before. CTBS Language data are similar, and scores in CTBS Math are even higher, with LEP children in Berkeley scoring above the 50th percentile four years before reclassification. Thus, Berkeley scores may look higher because some high-scoring chil¬dren were retained in these programs longer.
Even if the analysis were a valid one—if chil¬dren in all three districts entered at the same level and all three districts had equal reclassification cri-teria—Rossell's results would not necessarily reflect the quality of bilingual education in the Berkeley district. The comparison districts were chosen because their bilingual programs were exemplary. Yet the cross-district comparison per-formed by Rossell is of all LEP children in each district, taken as a group. A minority of the chil¬dren in the sample were in bilingual education. According to Rossell's data, only 31 percent of the

Chapter 9 / Bilingual Education Works 91

Comprehensible input in English, in of high quality ESL classes, and shelte-t matter teaching (comprehensible subj r teaching in the second language; ).
Subject matter teaching in the first I , without translation. This provides ba i knowledge that will make English :— omprehensible.
Literacy development in the first Ian will transfer to the second language.
report has been criticized. Imhoff (_„. iins that the programs in Krashen and Bil
worked because they were in "exempli s that are well-funded, staffed by hig]
and dedicated teachers, and composed -lasses of selected students" (p. 52). To i edge, not all the schools described in c .raph were well-funded. The teachers c
some extra in-service training in curn
and methodology, but to say that th lore dedicated is not only unfounded but n insult to teachers in the comparis . Nearly all of the students in the progra: nselected; there is no reason to suspect ti
ifferent than students in comparis , and there is no reason to suspect diffi
class size, ssell has also criticized Krashen and Bil
pointing out that one of the districts ' , Fremont, took other positive action i ildren in their bilingual program in additi education (preschool, extra Engli more parental involvement). While tl mean that these additional efforts we ible for the Fremont children's outstandi. , it is certainly not counter evidence >othesis that bilingual education is effectii thesis that has a great deal of addition ting evidence.
ter (1990a, 1990b), who repeatedly insi: lingual education "just doesn't worl
1990: 223), presents several kinds of arg In some cases, she is simply anti-bad-bili ion, attacking practices that mai of bilingual education would agree a . These include delaying exposure
English until students reach grade level
(Porter, 1990: 22), and programs in whi

rS are encouraged to code-switch in class
1990a: 31).
O "her attacks are simply unfounded and are
pported by the data she presents. Porter
-hi*i- for example, that in Boston "several hun-
V.j ■ bilingual education students had not learned
"0Lih English to be exited by grade seven
(PerK', 1990a: 60). Porter does not tell us, howev-
w ether this is a small or large percentage of
. ,—jji number of students served (if it is a small
eer:t'Kigc, the data would indicate that the pro-

vas successful), what kind of bilingual edu-
was used, or what the characteristics of
rudents were.
[Other example is her report that only 4,000 c_- 7,000 applicants passed an "English-lan-r_, r. aptitude test" given by New York's "-■-.-[■dated Edison company in 1988. None of ;' c . vho passed, according to Porter, was a grad-„ - -■ New York City's bilingual education pro-„-- Porter, 1990b: 24). Without more details, rz zr, it is impossible to draw any conclusions uch a statement. Porter does not tell us, for e 4. - lc. how many of those who took the test f ' ver limited English proficient students or rr ■ any had even had bilingual education.
The Immersion Argument
,•" :r popular argument against bilingual edu-
_.'- is the claim that there is a better way—
- - sion. Imhoff (1990) supports this view:
anguage teaching method that is generally
- _ test, most efficient, and most effective is the
i." or immersion method. . ." (p. 50). Imhoff
_'_ ot present evidence supporting his view, but
c have cited Rossell and Ross (1986), who
c that immersion students outperformed stu-
in bilingual education in English language
iency in six out of seven studies. Before
ing this claim we need to define the term
' " sion. There are, to my knowledge, at least
" ;finitions:
Submersion, or "sink or swim." There is 'port among language education profession-submersion for LEP children today.
Canadian-style immersion (CSI). As is nown, CSI is a program in which middle hildren receive much of their subject matter

instruction through a second language. Efforts are made to make sure the language they hear is com¬prehensible. Children in these programs learn sub¬ject matter successfully, and acquire a great deal of the second language.
Consideration of the principles of bilingual education presented earlier leads to the conclusion that CSI is similar, if not identical, to bilingual education. Children in CSI receive comprehensible input in the second language and develop literacy and subject matter knowledge in their first lan-guage, both outside of school and in school. As noted earlier, children in CSI are typically middle class, and do a considerable amount of reading in English outside of school (suggested by Cummins, 1977 and confirmed by Eagon & Cashion, 1988). Even in early total immersion programs, a great deal of the curriculum is in English, with English language arts introduced around grade two. By grade six, half the curriculum of early total immer¬sion is in English. Most important, the goal of CSI is bilingualism, not the replacement of one lan¬guage with another.
3. Sheltered subject matter teaching. Sheltered subject matter teaching was inspired by the success of CSI. It is subject matter teaching done in a sec¬ond language but made comprehensible. Research at the university level has confirmed that students in sheltered subject matter classes acquire impres¬sive amounts of the second language and learn subject matter as well (Edwards, Wesche, Krashen, Clement, 8c Kruidenier, 1984; Lafayette, & Buscaglia, 1985; Hauptman, Wesche, &c Ready, 1988; Sternfeld, Chapter IS).
Sheltered subject matter teaching is not a com¬petitor to instruction delivered in the first lan¬guage, but makes its contribution in a different way. As indicated earlier, both sheltered subject matter teaching and ESL provide comprehensible input directly, while teaching in the first language makes an indirect but powerful contribution by providing background knowledge and literacy.
Porter (1990a) approves of sheltered subject matter teaching ("content-based language teach¬ing"), but feels that it cannot be used in bilingual programs that require subjects to be taught in their native language for several years (p. 125). Subject


Chapter 9 / Bilingual Education Works 93


hi«" I
bl •' »■ .l'". -Dl1 ■
Zi" "
It" »
guage—social studies, language arts, topics (enrichment). The advantages i first language development were lisi Tiis part of the program can take the pl: >reign language study option for the £ student.
tructured immersion. Also inspired by t
f CSI, structured immersion (SI) is simi
red subject matter teaching in some wa
in other ways. As described by Gerst
(1985), SI has these four char;
prehensible subject matter instruction language acquirers, the first language when necessary i ination, but this is kept to a minimum, t instruction of grammar, of vocabulary.
first two characteristics have support literature, there is little evidence su efficacy of direct grammar instructii ws, see Krashen, 1984b; Hillocks, 198f eaching vocabulary has not been found ently effective (Mezynski, 1983). " a few studies of SI have been don "Woodward (1985) report that ch in Uvalde (Texas) reached the 30th pt the reading comprehension subtest of tuc Htan Achievement Test at the end of .ree. After leaving SI, however, they to the 15th and 16th percentile in grades ix (Becker & Gersten, 1982). While this
, and Instruction
First Language

all core subjects language arts, social studies language arts enrichment

• was better than a comparison group, rial. Children at this grade level who )per bilingual education do much bet-
Sc Biber, 1988). (Uvalde children did tter on the WRAT reading test, which
decoding skills.")
cond study of SI, Gersten and 1985) claimed that more LEP children - ia school district in SI performed at or : level than comparison children in ucation. There were several serious ■ith this study, however. First, no
provided about the bilingual educa-i. Second, the sample size was small
in bilingual education, 16 in SI). If : of just a few children had varied : results of this study would have
different. Third, the study only fol-ai until grade two.
and Woodward reported that the SI
extremely well in a follow-up study, gh levels of performance (65th per-
years later, but only two groups of L each were studied, and no compari-ngual education was made. Similarly, rudied in Gersten (1985) showed very iver the one year they were followed, arison group was used.
Effccti 'cncss of Immersion Programs for LEP Children
5 now ready to return to the claim made by
and Ross (1986) that immetsion was more ; than bilingual education in English lan-
i . evelopment in six out of seven studies. As
i Rossell and Ross's Table 1 (p. 398), the
1 " lies in which immersion was considered
sten, 1985;
a-Hughes and Soils, 1980;
ik and Swain, 1978;
ik, Swain, and Nwanunobi, 1977;
ck, Lambert, and Tucker, 1977; and
lesee Tucker, and Lambert, 1978.
dy 1 (Gersten, 1985} is the SI study ;d previously. As noted earlier, it suffers very small sample size, and no description

is given of the kind of "bilingual education" used for the comparison group.
Study 2 (Peha-Hughes St Soli's, 1980) is unpublished, but it is discussed in several pub¬lished papers. It is a comparison of two programs in McAllen, Texas. While Rossell and Ross label these "Immersion" and "bilingual education," Willig (1985,1987) classified the immersion group as bilingual education, noting that the "immer¬sion" group had instruction in English in the morning and instruction in Spanish reading in the afternoon. In addition, the explicit goal of the immersion program was bilingualism—develop¬ment of both languages.
Also, the group Rossell and Ross label "bilin¬gual education" did not, apparently, have an ideal program. According to an article in the Wall Street Journal (Schorr, 1983), classes "were conducted partly in Spanish and partly in English," suggest¬ing concurrent translation, a method shown to be ineffective (Legarreta, 1979). What apparently happened in McAllen is that children in a good bilingual program outperformed children in a poor bilingual program.
The remaining four studies are all studies of Canadian French immersion. Studies 3 and 4 (Barik & Swain, 1978; Barik, Swain, 6c Nwanunobi, 1977) are studies in which early total immersion is compared to partial immersion. In partial immersion, there is less teaching in French; from the beginning, some subjects are taught in English and some in French.
Rossell and Ross are not explicit concerning why these studies were included, but the idea seems to be that early total immersion is similar to all-English "immersion" for LEP Children, while partial immersion is similar to bilingual education. Since Barik et al. and Barik and Swain show that children in early total immersion acquire more French than children in partial immersion pro¬grams, "immersion," it is concluded, is better than bilingual education.
But Canadian eatly total immersion is not the same as an all-English immersion program for LEP children. In fact, both versions of CSI under con¬sideration here, early total and partial immersion, are quite similar to bilingual education. As noted earlier, much of the CSI curriculum is in the first language, English, and children in these programs come to school with a great deal of literacy

Chapter 9 / Bilingual Education Works 95

inderstood that BD? (bilingual immer-n) is not an English version of the SB ional program. SB 477 is built on a Jiat advocates traditional concepts of guage. ... SB 477 focuses the child's
the details of language such as pho-
and grammar rules (p. 9).
JE used some whole language and roach activities, the most commonly s in TBE were basal texts and work-o Independent School District, 1987: .g to a 1989 report, whole language :nsible input-based methodology had y introduced into SB 477 from 1985 c "observations indicate that the not been fully implemented by SB s" (El Paso Independent School a: 10).
arize, "immersion" in El Paso com-:ion in the first language with com-lput based methodology, similar to )lan described earlier in the text. The rogram (SB 477) used more instruc-rst language, but focused more on It appears that the bilingual immer-was more consistent with the princi-ge and literacy development and first presented in this paper.
ding, I wish to add my own criticism jducation. In my opinion, bilingual [ not realize their the potential unless ich better job of providing a print-lment in the primary language, .icates that reading, especially free ding, is a major source of both lan-:racy development, as well as knowl-g in the primary language will thus l of the "common underlying profi-mmins, 1981) that helps ensure uage development. In addition, a in the first language will, most like-> the second language. Finally, read-tes a great deal to advanced first ilopment.

The current situation is not good. The follow-ing excerpt, from informal notes made by Sandra Pucci of the University of Southern California, illusrrates the point.
Ms. Pucci visited a book fair at a bilingual ele-mentary school:
The book fair, an annual event at the school, was going on when I was there, and the kids were fair¬ly excited, at least the ones whose parents had given them money to buy a book or two. I went in to check out the situation, and after receiving an enthusiastic "yes" as to whether they were selling books in Spanish, had a look at just what there was. The display consisted of eight cases of books of four shelves each. There was one shelf of Spanish books among them. On this shelf were 12 different titles, but only two . . . appeared to be above a third grade reading level. There were around five copies of each book.... At that given moment, there were about 20 kids mining about, mostly looking at the English shelves . . . the Spanish books were placed at the bottom, and were actually quite hard to get to.
Unfortunately, the situation at this school is typi-. cal. The good news is that the solution is straight-forward—a print-rich environment.
Criticisms of bilingual education, as noted earlier, rest on two assertions: First, it has been claimed that bilingual programs don't work and that the evidence for them is inconsistent and contradictory. The research, however, is remarkably consistent. Properly organized bilingual programs do work, and even "unanalyzed" bilingual programs appear to work at least as well as all-English programs.
Second, it has been asserted that "immersion" is superior to bilingual education. This has not been demonstrated. As we have seen, there are sev¬eral definitions of the term immersion. One of them, submersion, is rejected by all professionals as an option for LEP children. Canadian-style immersion is quite similar to bilingual education. Sheltered subject matter teaching makes a different kind of contribution to second language develop-ment and is a valuable part of bilingual education. The research support for structured immersion is,

Chapter 9 / Bilingual Education Works 97

isons of different varieties of Canadiai
ingual education can be improved. Bi
little doubt that bilingual education work
> promote the view that bilingual educatic
foreign nation must receive schooling du sively in Japanese, Arabic, or Thai? Wh; take into consideration?
i attempts to get an idea across are greetc at implications follow for the schooling < submersion" contexts. CHAPTER 10 Two Languages for All Children: Expanding to Low Achievers and the Handicapped arolyn Andrade, Richard R. Kretschmer, Jr., and Laura W. Kretschmer EDITOR'S INTRODUCTION J s it possible for all children to acquire more than one language? Can it be done in a school setting? The history of foreign language education in the U.S. would not seem to support such expectations, but Andrade, Kretschmer, and Kretschmer contend that the historical failure of foreign language teaching in America has been due largely to false assumptions and inappropriate methods of teaching. If the right sorts of adjustments are made in the methods, they contend, foreign language acquisition is a realistic possibility for all the children in our schools. What justifies this seemingly rosy optimism? A consid¬erable amount of research, actually. There is ample evidence that even children who have traditionally been regarded as "at risk" or "handicapped" are able to benefit from appropriate foreign language instruction. The key here, as in every other approach that gets results, is enabling the students to make the connection between the unfamiliar forms of the target language and their own day-to-day experience. e earliest days of formal education in the ■tates, learning a foreign language has been 'ed a painful, albeit necessary, discipline aust be endured if one is to become an ;d" individual. "With its rigid emphasis on E through translation, memorization of ir rules, and endless verb conjugation merations of Americans gave up on other es and came to believe that foreign lan-.uency was a realistic goal only for the :ually gifted elite and the economically ;ed. ow but steadily growing awareness in this of the importance of fluency in two lan-coupled with a greater understanding of ;t and second language acquisition and a on of children who have painlessly and successfully acquired two languages, has led edu¬cators and researchers to take a close look at the participants of elementary school foreign language programs. The general public and foreign language pro¬fessionals would agree that there is one group of children most likely to be successful language learners. Programs for these children, the academi-cally talented or "gifted," often include a foreign language component. Perhaps since little time and energy has been devoted in the literature to aver¬age, below-average, and handicapped children, some segments of society believe that foreign lan¬guage in the elementary school works counter to concept and skill development of below-average and handicapped children. For that reason, this paper will focus on the role of foreign language in Chapter 10 / Two Languages for All Children 99 £, E so slowly, professionals in business, gov-— t and education are not only realizing the ^r .jjgg 0f learning other languages, but stat-.* jublicly. At its annual convention in 1987, h >. itional Association of Elementary School p. p„ -ils adopted the following platform state-—"e -t i ...aling with curriculum and instruction:
\ > ,)P believes that foreign language proficiency jortant for students who will live in the 21st
i- -jry. NAESP therefore urges principals to ^ iet the inclusion of instruction in a foreign
«- age as a regular component of the school's •-• ictional program.
: rationale for that platform statement was f_r-' explained in terms of the ethnic and lin-,. diversity of our nation, the growing eco-"_- z nterdependence of world trading partners, i-,, contribution foreign language study makes •o: nderstanding of one's own language.
T Task Force on International Education of
•-; N ional Governors' Association (1989) has
,r . :veral objectives for action. Among those
a Dre of our students need to gain proficiency
\ - gn languages." To achieve that objective,
f.*t force further recommends that individual
. . offer opportunities to elementary school
s- . i for foreign language instruction beginning
r«. as first grade. All students should have the
inity to learn to speak a second language in " . dy years."
aone of these documents do the authors
that foreign language education be limited
icademically talented or the "gifted" stu-
Hhere is no better time than the present to
• _ acreased attention on elementary school
language programs for all children.
; experience of the Cincinnatti Public
*- can be very helpful in understanding the
on students of varying academic abilities
m diverse socioeconomic groups, of partici-
- in elementary school foreign language pro-
From its humble beginnings with a little lan 150 students in 1974, ever growing mity support and increased pressure to racial isolation throughout the district have i the continued expansion of the Foreign ige Magnet Program. By the 1988-89 fear, over 4,000 students in 12 schools (ten :ary, one middle, and one high school) were

receiving instruction in seven different languages (Arabic, Chinese, French, German, Japanese, Russian, and Spanish).
While the Cincinnatti Public Schools provides a wide variety of magnet Programs for its students, from Montessori to computers and from Paideia to fine arts, nearly one quarter of all magnet school participants are in foreign language magnets.
Regardless of the language of concentration, children are accepted into the Foreign Language Magnet Program only at kindergarten or grade one. Applications are processed by the Central Office on a first-come, first-served basis, with racial balance being the sole factor in placement decisions. No academic screening takes place in any of the elementary school foreign language pro-grams. Students, therefore, come from a broad cross-section of the community.
Because children represent all racial and socioeconomic levels of the community, one would expect the academic achievement of these children to be consistent with national norms. The California Achievement Test is administered annu-ally to all students in grades 1-11. Contrary to expectations, however, achievement among for-eign language magnet children continues to be well above the anticipated national norms in both read-ing and mathematics. Furthermore, foreign lan-guage magnet participants score, on the average, higher than the average of all magnet school par-ticipants.
Table 10.1 shows the percentages of students in the Foreign Language Magnet Program scoring at or above the 50th percentile in reading and mathematics during the six-year period 1981-87.
TABLE 10.1 language Magnet Students Scoring at or above 50th Percentile on CAT
Year Reading Mathematics
1981-82 61.2% 59.9%
1982-33 61.3% 62.8%
1983-84 70.1% 76.4%
1984-85 68.4% 74.2%
1985-86 72.3% 77.4%
1986-87 72.0% 77.7%
At the same time, the percentage of students in the above average stanine range (7-8-9) also con-tinues to increase, thus remaining well above the

Chapter 10 / Two Languages for All Children 101

oughout the elementary school years, stu-*ho remained in the program consistently betrer in both reading and mathematics 4 students who left the program. Grade 5 or each cohort are listed in Table 10.3.
TA3L-"0-3 Grade 5 CAT Scores
Participants Mean SD
Non-Participants Mean SD
64.17 63.33
59.30 57.19
19.05 16.69
17.77 16.22

- tics
63.40 17.27 59.85 21.42
63.93 15.66 57.37 16.70
;restingly enough, however, no signifi-
iward or downward mobility was found
low, average, or high stanines in either
c„ - of children regardless of program partici-
In other words, children who tested in
• w ■ stanine range (1-2-3) in grade one and
• ited the program remained in the low sta-
„ - nge through grade five. The same was
r- - r the middle (4-5-6) and high range
"■ * .By the same token, children who scored
■ low stanine range in grade one and
-c- :d in the program through grade five con-
:o score in the below average stanines. Of
;_ - the latter group of children had the ben-
; acquiring communication skills in two
.iough the number of children in the low ■• - group was too small to make any far-5 generalizations, it is fair to say that exit-language magnet program did not increase ment nor did remaining in the program ichievement.
en children from the two cohorts were
i by race and sex, interesting differences
d. While program participation favorably
luenced achievement among both blacks and
1 itcis and both males and females, the greatest
" iges seem to occur among whites. Socio-
* jr-omic differences among children from both
" iai groups were not considered in Table 10.4,
t could have a significant impact.

TABLE 10.4 CAT Scores by Race and Sex
Participants Mean SD
Non-Participants Mean SD
52.56 14.35
62.42 14,09
75.03 15.23
71.31 18.62
59,37 14.86
58.72 14.53
71.26 16.27
66.69 16.82
53.88 13.77
55.54 14.23
67.39 24.03
59.07 19.97
54.16 15.73
53.12 13.39
67.62 17.45
58.64 19.70

BF 56.07 16.03 55.82 18.31
BM 59.03 15.90 52.96 20.74
WF 72.03 14.85 67.83 22.95
WM 69.31 17.02 63.43 20.42
BF 62.26 17.19 50.06 14.10
BM 58.77 14.45 57.72 17.87
WF 68.47 12.42 63.23 8.56
WM 68.74 16.45 60.71 21.01
"While many factors contribute to success in school, the Cincinnati experience points to the fol-lowing:
• participation in elementary school foreign lan-guage programs does not hamper achievement in reading and mathematics, even among low stanine children;
• students who exit foreign language programs do not demonstrate higher achievement in an all-English program;
• students who remain in language programs, on the average, achieve at higher levels than children who exit the program.
Further evidence of the appropriateness of for¬eign language programs for all children comes from a four-year study, "The Effectiveness of a Partial French Immersion Program for Students from Different Ethnic and Social Class

Chapter 10 / Two Languages for All Children 103

have the same role models during the id the same access to French. 5ill University researchers concluded »n from lower socioeconomic back-well as those from ethnic minority ; can benefit from second language ■ograms." They were cautious to note, t these results should be applied only ;roup children whose first language is .t a non-standard dialect of English, e Cincinnatti experience is a signifi-ig in opening the doors of foreign Ian-srooms to children of varying .ic backgrounds and academic abili-longitudinal research in this area is
>n we explore the issues involved in
tiple languages to a unique group of
mely, handicapped children. It has
nted that many handicapped children
States already have access to at least
es; these children come from homes
inguage spoken in the home is not
E glish (Garrison & Hammill, 1971; Mercer,
:-71; Grubb, 1974; Chan, 1983; Omark St
hrckson, 1983; Ortiz St Yates, 1983; Delgado,
_l S4; Dew, 1984), The dominant language for
Eu-m is most commonly Spanish or a Native
*. icrican language, followed, in recent years, by a
s ie variety of Asian languages. However, the
*■ jority of handicapped children continue to
;c ae from homes where some form of English is
" dominant language. Because of this diversity in
nc sulation, the focus of bilingual efforts in special
c ication has tended to be on identification of
". idicapping conditions in the bilingual popula-
" i and on appropriate educational placement for
" se identified children (DeAvila St Havassey,
1 74; Oakland, 1979; Mowder, 1980; Samuda
: Crawford, 1980; Erickson St Omark, 1981;
- =tke-Stahlman 8c Weiner, 1982; Plata, 1982;
mico et al., 1983; Leonard 5c Weiss, 1983;
'' rcer, 1983; Cummins, 1984; Mattes 6c Omark,
34; Nutell et al., 1984; Barona St Barona,
37). Until awareness of home language environ-

ments emerged, it was common for many children to be classified as handicapped because they were unable to successfully complete test batteries in English, test batteries that were biased toward standard anglophone cultural and social values and against the cultural and linguistic variations actually occurring in American society (Altus, 1953; Johnson & Sikes, 1965; Lesser et al., 1965 Christiansen St Livermore, 1970; Cole & Bruner. 1971; Garrison St Hammill, 1971; Killian, 1971 Mercer, 1971, 1973; Sabatino et al., 1972 Silverstein, 1973; Hallahan Sc Kauffman, 1977 McCreary St Padilla, 1977; Coles, 1978; Gerkein 1978; Reschly, 1978; Gutkin, 1979; Tucker, 1980 Cole, 1981; Olmedo, 1981; Teeter et al., 1982 Terrell Sc Terrell, 1983). Fortunately, special edu-cation has made substantial strides toward non-biased assessment and toward special education instruction for limited English-proficient children (Omark St Erickson, 1983). This body of litera¬ture will not be considered further since the focus of this section is not on assessment or placement issues, but rather on how handicapped children can and/or should be exposed to languages other than English.
Definition of Handicap
Within the area of special education, there are a variety of handicapping conditions that can and do exist, both from an educational and legal point of view. For this discussion handicapped children are considered in three groups with regard to problems of language learning. Although children may have more than one handicap, for our discus-sion we will assume only one.
The first group of children to be considered generally have normal potential for language learning, but are deprived of normal and/or ade-quate exposure to language or communication. The second group of children have adequate sen¬sory and cognitive abilities, but lack the motor control to display their knowledge of language through conventional means such as speech. The third group of children possess less potential for language learning, not because of a lack of input, but because of cognitive deficits, of mild to pro-found degree that prevent them from mastering the linguistic/communicative regularities of formal symbol systems.

Chapter 10 / Two Lansuages for All Children 105


;e of an inability to learn language, 1 e of a lack of full access to the communi t.
definition, social or emotional disturbat behavior patterns that prevent normal soc mrse with others. In other words, socially orally disturbed children may actively res lgful contact with others. As a consequen hildren often have problems with the co ative functions of language, even thou lay have acquired normal commands oi :m aspects of language (Yudkovitz et i
It is also common for socially or beh;
disturbed children to display difficult semantic aspects of language. They fi
associations between language and its r in a manner that reflects their distanci
ther members of their society (Labov 1, 1977). Again, these problems reflect r
'lity to acquire language but a lack of nc from which to formulate hypod
out language functions, functio -nsurate with those of their own spee mity.
e second group of children to be consider
with orthopedic handicaps, that is, ch
ho have severe motor involvements, due
such as cerebral palsy, that leave the
incapacitated. Many of these childr
motor control to generate intellige
yet they may understand the language
If they have linguistic mastery, all that equired is the provision of alternative ntive systems that can supplement
speech as the primary means of expressic ^sterns can be sign language; communic ards with pictures, letters, words, or phn
indicated by the child through some foi
ting; or electronic devices that print or pr
rtificial speech. There is no reason wl i
Iternative means could not be programm |
other than English. For instance, !
board could be organized using |
or Chinese lexicon. Likewise, microcot i
eyboards can be set easily to produce '
Lriety of characters. |
ontrast to the first two groups of childre
also a group that seems to have adequa
function, environmental exposure, ai
motor control but who have distinct dif

earning language. These children range 3Se described as language or learning dis-, children who display substantial deficits reas of development including language , This latter sub-group of children may be be developmentally disabled, or to have 6 to severe mental retardation. Finally, in jp are children with profound disruptions r to language or communication develop-jt to all aspects of self-care: those classified g severe to profound developmental delays evere autism. All these sub-sets of children common problem in language learning l the degree of that problem varies accord-e degree of handicap. Children with other-rmal intelligence and a specific language problem display difficulties in many areas ny language acquisition and development, g the acquisition of the sound system, the ; form, the meaning system, and the com-ive functions of their primary language 86). Although there is some disagreement terature, there is sufficient evidence that with specific language learning problems adequate environmental interaction for ■ learning (Cramblit 8c Siegel, 1977; Lasky ■p 1982; Conti-Ramsden &C Friel-Patti, yet these children display difficulties in erpersonal uses of language and in literacy on. Thus, unlike the two previous groups, •d group's problem is not a lack of lan-:xperience or an inability to produce but rather difficulty in understanding how ; is formed and how it works in communi-icchanges.
ummary, then, when discussing the learn-nore than one language by handicapped l, we have to distinguish among those of children who have sensory, motor, or shavioral barriers to the learning of any ;, that is, children who have the ability to or express symbol systems once these bar-overcome, and those children whose main . is not a lack of adequate sensory input or xpression, but rather a mild to moderate language learning problem or more perva-elopmental delay. Each of these groups of has different needs and abilities, and we insider different solutions for them with o the issue of second-language learning.

Bilingualism in the Handicapped Population
A search for recent literature on teaching second languages to handicapped children revealed only one set of reports on the development of more than one language in handicapped children. Bruck (1985b) studied the effects of a French immersion program on English-speaking children who could be described as having specific language-learning problems with their primary language. Bruck's studies indicate that these children's mastery of French was on par with their acquisition of English. The reports do not provide specific infor¬mation on the second language acquisition process itself, however. This sparse literature would make it appear that there is little incidence of handi¬capped persons being exposed to or learning a sec¬ond language. However, our personal experiences suggest this is not the case. A brief review of these experiences will demonstrate the capacity of a variety of so-called handicapped persons to master more than one language.
In the course of a party in New York City where most of the guests were hearing impaired, the authors met a congenitally, profoundly hear¬ing-impaired woman who introduced us to her new husband (a Bulgarian whose hearing was nor¬mal). She spoke to him in French, translating our comments to him and his to us.
While working as part of a school intake team, Laura Kretschmer interviewed a young hear¬ing-impaired man, Dominic, and his mother. Assessment of Dominic's mastery of signed and spoken English indicated relatively standard English acquisition patterns found in many hear¬ing-impaired high-school-aged students. As the interviewer communicated with Dominic, the young man turned to his mother, who spoke only Italian, and interpreted what was said. Because the interviewer did not want to use Dominic as an interpreter, the services of an Italian-speaking team member were obtained. By using this addi¬tional team member, it was also possible to obtain an informal assessment of Dominic's use of Italian. Dominic's spoken Italian was described as being as functional as his English.
On a visit to Los Angeles, we visited a main-streamed program for primary-aged hearing-impaired students, a program that contained many children with Spanish surnames. During lunch

Chapter 10 / Two Languages for All Children 107

se-r crea¬te =
his teacher introduced the child to ( isequently, to a second communic ;veloped for Greek, acher from an Indian reservation re} erately to severely mentally retardei .any with Down's Syndrome, who
limited conversation both in Englis Native American language. Impress
the children recognized without pr n to shift from English to their > n language and vice-versa, lough these examples are isolated it there are handicapped persons wh learn more than one language, pe ange of abilities and socio-economic
as well as a variety of handicaps.
econd Language for apped Children?
)uld we provide handicapped childrei
ti language with experience in more thai
;uage? As is true with non-handicappe< there are a variety of positive social am ual reasons for learning more than on i. A salient reason for handicapped chil mat learning a second language provide rtunity to think about language itself. Thi ularly true, if as Krashen (1981) suggests I comes to monitor his use of the seconi ;, that is, the child realizes he or she i iguistic principles to generate utterances s different from those of his or her nativ . The ability to think about language a i has been referred to as metalinguisti ge (McLaughlin, 1984; Cummins, 1987 possible that if a handicapped child i lifficulty mastering aspects of his or he language that the metalinguistic knowl ined from learning a second languag s beneficial to the child in enhancing mas le native language, ndly, exposure to a second language, pat when presented as part of a program o il exposure, increases the child's aware differences among individuals (Lambert rhis should be true for both normall; ig and handicapped children. Many hand children live restricted lives, often not o n choosing; exposure to other language c ^^ can on^ ennance the'r coramunica-e - ,. intellectual abilities while simultaneously *ach, and Krashen and his hypotheses ab ■ i language acquisition as well as storytell -p sing drama in teaching the elementary ch pected, the major focus of the course is --ids, as teachers are most interested in h i D present the language to the learner. Si- ; earner is now the young child, the teaci
to know as much as possible about b( -md second language acquisition. Frc sn's theories on second language acquisitj -ES teacher learns the importance of natui ngful language in the classroom. The m mown Input Hypothesis emphasizes I ity of providing the child with a vast amot iprehensible language at the child's next 1 : stage. Most teachers ask how they c what language is at the child's next lev ding to Krashen and Terrell, however, ' :e, providing optimal input may be surpi :asy" (Krashen &c Terrell, 1983: 33). 1 * ■s refer to speech containing one structure as "finely tuned input" and to speech thai itandable but uses some structures beyo -lid's current linguistic stage as "rougl
input," and refer to this phenomenon lg a net" over the listener (1983: 33). I ' idea allows the teacher freedom to comrr in the classroom without having to woi linguistic overload for the listener. Our pi tresses that allowing speech to emerge wb


u i- idy is a more natural way to acquire
** C ',r,.. -, it eives the child time to internalize
«boil""- °^ 1 ■
rTC^. - itaxi pronunciation and intonation.
*tr%e--r*-" then- lessons, FLES teachers include
v'-ii ■ * " ^^ promote good listening skills
rfh"i* s:-" '^"S 3JX^ Total Physical Response.
5rr c^t*. ■- cher learns, too, that using the sec-
j ijr;- . to integrate other content areas into
. e_-, iguage curriculum offers the advan¬
ce or - 3 ^lt students' attention on meaning
nd "O «- " 5° t^at tne second language becomes
.p^i \*~ ling rather than an end in itself.
^„ . hat as methods instructors we can
Ai.r..o " ooa listening activities such as story-
-cl1---*- " " Physical Response, describing and
cc-:. - ^ures, etc. In this way teachers can
„!-- ; — these activities with understandable
U&B.. '- minimal student response prepare
ins"-- - ater speech production. In addition,
:he - ■" .tions prove to the pre-service and in-
ser- -- 'rs enrolled in the course that their
.s-:" - " ine °f them, a colleague, involved in
jut ■ " d in perfecting his or her teaching
s^ , , they are. Our demonstrations also
p-o ,. ■ achers with good examples of activi-
-i;s :- their lessons for the practicum and
*„' asaiywxti-Ats for the course. These activities r - t integrate the curriculum of the elementary z- les and the culture of the language as well as .i* -fling and speaking skills. As the teachers plan :■ _ teach the second language curriculum togeth-5" ;he> become very familiar with the concepts ". " the young child is learning in his first Ian-( ;e ir. math, language arts, science, social stud-: fine arts, and healthful living. Some of the ." /itiis which the teachers use to integrate the ■■.- nd language with the elementary curriculum -c ide sequencing story events, role playing, pat-*'" i:ng, fantasy experiences, and culturally tcntic songs, games, and counting rhymes. In " " r.ing and carrying out good lessons, the teach-f -nust also ensure that they address the cogni-ab'hdes and interests of the language learners lasmg their teaching activities on concepts that " c to the children's developmental stages and leir world of thinking and living. As -nethods teachers we share ideas from hers whose classes we have observed. We also )urage experienced teachers in the class to .g in materials they have made and explain

how they use them. A natural way that this exchange happens is through planning together for the practicum which is a part of the methods course. Some teachers who have never worked with the elementary child are unaccustomed to the constant search for materials that is a part of every elementary teacher's way of life. Our experience is that most successful FLES teachers learn to become scavengers, frequenting yard sales, dime stores, flea markets, and second-hand book stores as well as keeping a watchful eye for free and inex¬pensive items. Finally, we collect their suggestions for materials, add other resources that have come to our attention, and compile a list of available materials and addresses for the entire class. Participants will have seen how many of the mate¬rials can be used as they observe fellow teachers in the practicum.
The practicum which takes place in conjunction with the methods class is an important component of our FLES methods course. Young children between the ages of 6 and 10 who have had little or no prior experience in a second language come to the campus, where they hear only French or Spanish in the classes taught by the teachers in the methods course. We have found that the language classes provide a link between the community and the university and establish the rapport and involvement that are needed for successful second language programs.
During the sessions that precede the first day of the practicum, we work with the teachers of each language group to help them plan the curriculum and set goals and objectives for their teaching and their students. The second language specialists co-teach each class to allow all participants several opportunities to work with the children. Each ses¬sion involves two consecutive lessons for each teacher. This is done in order to maintain some continuity with the children. The practicum gives the participants in the FLES methods course the opportunity to employ strategies that are appropri¬ate to use with children in the elementary grades. When the partidpants are not involved in teaching, they are able to observe the other teams. Each ses¬sion with the children is followed by a time for

Chapter 11 / The FLES Methods Course 115

ive movement, drama, art, use of the i -. ), and some time devoted to sharing i„
handmade and commercial teaching mat -. he second language specialists seem to re. the time that they have during the courst -_ their teaching experiences and to excha ,•
We use our teachers' suggestions given _-iurse evaluation to improve our teaching . — hance the content of the FLES methi z% :. As a result, we now include a segment _-lg materials and devote more time to -. g the practicum. Their ideas provide us v derstanding of their needs as teachers ; -_ re can best help them in our course, he objectives of the FLES methods cou- • me to evolve as the FLES programs in :xpand to their full implementation in 19
we began our courses, the school systt -in the initial planning stages and FLES j
had not yet been started in the schools, me, students in the methods course were ' -r secondary teachers who hoped to move „ ;mentary grades as the programs were imj d. These teachers had little or no teach ence in the elementary school and theref -aot very knowledgeable about many aspi :LES program, the elementary curricuh .istrative involvement, teaching materials; ■ces, teaching techniques appropriate to ■oung children, daily class load, and the h r level demanded of the teacher. Now t ■ :ond language programs in the schools h 3me time to become established and K- -x certification programs in second langua. '» ■eplaced the secondary level programs at : es and universities, the focus of the FI I * ids course will continue to change to m " eds of the undergraduate students who h iching experience, as well as the teach nove from secondary to elementary sch ims. The FLES methods course will also c to address the increasing level of teach ;tencies which is required as the progr .ds in the upper elementary grades anc .ated with the middle grades program.

i I' i recent unpublished survey at the University of New Mexico involving 410 faculty members and ' o« students, the single most important element of good teaching was judged to be "knowledge of the b_ _ct matter." If this is so across the board, and there is good reason to suppose that it is, should .i .r be a proficiency requirement in the target language for foreign language teachers?
r \ ~ tnmon complaint about FLES programs in the past was "inadequate articulation"; i.e., the chil---. who obtained substantial proficiency in a foreign language might find themselves in classes for z?--. beginners at the secondary level. What kinds of planning could be done to improve the articula-- i jetween elementary, middle school, and secondary school programs?
3 v* - : are some of the ways teachers can benefit from observing other teachers and children in demon-%'- on classes or other planned observations?
i, j. can the knowledge of parents and others in the community who are speakers of the target lan-; ■> ; be brought into play in the foreign language classroom?

Chapter 11 / The FLES Methods Course 117

iS place greater value on the ability to icate, even at the beginning levels of lan-jrning, students are engaged in activities [ vocabulary is used in meaningful con->r example, they may use the names of order to plan a nutritious lunch based on food groups, or use the names of animals bout animal habitats or animal body cov-hey may use classroom vocabulary to esti-[ measure various sizes of common objects tool, and color words to make a graph of £ clothing worn by the students in the iey may use the names of animals and col-jattem study which the class creates itself, based on a model such as Brown Bear

School Teaching
Curtain describes the new look of eze on a hot summer day. Getting meaning, as Curtain illustratds, is out the foreign language surface curiosity. By first understanding to commands, by understanding , and lots of action, children word answers, and easy language is on using the language naturally urges teachers to "use their acting , I can see John Rassias his head and hands into a Dartmouth classroom to where he , and on behalf of all the language
were not specifically related to the le the day. "When reading and writing acth re included, they were often carried o' and without any meaningful contem of English often permeated the classroo -h activities as giving directions, checkir hension, and teaching culture (Curtain i < 1988). thodology in today's elementary scho language programs emphasizes commur classes are conducted in the target lai and elements of instruction are moi d. Students no longer respond in a ro -chanistic manner to long lists of isolate lary words cued by a series of flashcard , as elementary school foreign languaj iS place greater value on the ability to icate, even at the beginning levels of lan-jrning, students are engaged in activities [ vocabulary is used in meaningful con->r example, they may use the names of order to plan a nutritious lunch based on food groups, or use the names of animals bout animal habitats or animal body cov-hey may use classroom vocabulary to esti-[ measure various sizes of common objects tool, and color words to make a graph of £ clothing worn by the students in the iey may use the names of animals and col-jattem study which the class creates itself, based on a model such as Brown Bear ear What Do You See? by Bill Martin, Jr.
ere are many variations in methodology L program will be different depending on -am model and the goals of the individual jol, there are some elements in common. One he key elements in successful methodology for tentary school foreign language classrooms is recent insights into second language acquisi-. arc included. Research in second language uisition suggests the need for early language eriences that provide many opportunities for \iing comprehension especially at the early es (Dulay, Burt, &c Krashen, 1982). When lis-ng comprehension rather than speaking is ihasized, students associate the new language i meanings before they make a conscious enp* to produce sounds and expressions. This n important factor related to communicative hodology since early methodology placed a ;y emphasis on imitation and speaking. Elementary school foreign language programs old be designed to take into account the natur--ages of second language acquisition (Krashen Terrell, 1983). An initial listening period .ilc be planned for in which students are not cccd to respond in the target language, tcrsion programs provide a good model for initial listening period. In immersion pro-ns. students hear only the foreign language

from the first day of school. All classroom instruc¬tions and directions are in the foreign language so that students acquire the foreign language in play and work situations that are related to meaningful communication. Even though the teacher is con¬stantly using the foreign language, the students may use English among themselves and also in speaking to the teacher. This reduces anxiety and, frustration and allows the children a period ai time in which they can build up comprehension skills. Within one to two years in the program, the children move rather automatically into speech production.
Similarly, in other types of elementary school foreign language programs, the teacher should not feel obligated to restrict classroom language to that which the students can understand fully and attempt to produce themselves. When these teach¬ers follow the immersion model, they enrich the language environment and surround the activity of the classroom with speech. Instead of calling for immediate imitation of words and patterns, they allow for an initial period when students are not expected to respond in the target language, thus encouraging the children to listen for meaning rather than listen for speech production (Curtain & Pesola, 1988).
Activities that encourage listening skills, espe¬cially in the early stages, include such strategies as active physical involvement, during which the stu¬dents must respond to verbal commands by per¬forming certain actions. Other activities that encourage listening skills are teacher demonstra¬tions (with the teacher making use of props, pic-tures, and pantomime to aid comprehension), descriptions, and telling or reading a story. To use descriptions for listening practice, the teacher describes an object or picture, constantly using gestures and specific elements of the object or pic¬ture to make the meaning clear. The teacher can then check listening comprehension through yes-no, short answer, or either-or questions, or by pointing or having students otherwise identify information from the picture.
Communication as the Main Goal
Another key element in methodology for elemen¬tary school foreign language programs is that com¬munication is the main goal. In content-based


Chapter 12 / Methods in Elementary School Foreign Language Teaching 119

. • ;e needs, focuses on meaning, revolves
.,.1, „ learning activities with specific content,
4 -; jws natural developmental stages of litera-
g, cr opment. In second language teaching, the
Mr* - ilmarks apply, except that literacy devel-
_r ;- may not be as important since many stu-
J-r:- ! ear^y language learning programs are
alre - literate in their first language.
S;r - ;s and activities used in elementary school
:cz* . language methodology are extremely
- ..- as is the methodology used for teaching
_r : iculum area at this level. There is really no
s, , pproach or method that is most effective
A "" children. Below are some methods, strate-
£ c. d approaches currently in use that con-
::■- to effective elementary school foreign
m". ;e teaching.
Total Physical Response (TPR)
!- ■ approach, developed by James Asher
7 - students respond with physical activity to
rz- ingly complex teacher commands. Students
expected to respond orally until they feel
■c Early oral responses often involve role-
l in which the student takes on the role of
:her and gives commands to others in the
in important aspect of the strategy is the
c i of novel commands, to encourage creative
1 ■eful listening, and the combination of com-
to encourage performances of sequential
The Natural Approach
approach (Krashen &c Terrell, 1983) stu-
earn new vocabulary through experiences
i associations with the words in a meaningful
- itext. Extended listening experiences include
'' R, use of vivid pictures to illustrate concepts,
i active involvement of the students through
- ysical contact with the pictures and objects
" ng discussed—by means of choice-making, yes-
questions, and game situations. The Natural
proach outlines a useful sequencing of teacher estions which moves students from a listening

mode to a speaking mode; the first level (except for the use of "yes" and "no") gives a demonstra-tion of listening comprehension only, while the last three levels move the student into speaking (Curtain &c Pesola, 1988).
Descriptions and Demonstrations
The teacher describes an object or a picture, preferably brightly colored, that has high interest and vivid action and/or cultural value, constandy using gestures and elements from the object or the picture to make the meaning clear. Listening com-prehension is checked through yes-no, short answer, or either-or questions, or by means of pointing or otherwise identifying information from the picture. In a demonstration the teacher gives instructions on how to complete a task (such as folding a piece of paper), making heavy use of props, pictures, pantomimes, and other visual aids to comprehension. There should be frequent rephrasing during the presentation—just as might occur in real conversation—and regular compre-hension checks throughout (Curtain &c Pesola, 1988: 130).
Telling or Reading a Story
Storytelling is an important method for providing natural language experiences even during very early stages of language acquisition. Stories should be highly predictable or familiar to the children from their native culture, and include a large pro¬portion of previously learned vocabulary. They should be repetitive, making regular use of formu¬las and patterns. In the best story choices, these elements of repetition will provide language that children can later use for their own expressive pur¬poses. The story line should lend itself to dramati¬zation and pantomime and to the use of visuals and props to help clarify its content.
Shared oral reading with "big books" gives students oral language input and the opportunity to participate in shared reading. A big book is an enlarged piece of commercial—or student made— literature. It has a predictable story line with a strong rhythm, rhyme, repeated patterns, logical sequence, and supportive illustrations. Students follow each word in the big book as it is read. Students in literacy development programs begin

Chapter 12 / Methods In

Elementary School Foreisn Language Teaching 121

lation that the other partner does not h-erative learning (see Johnson & Johns Kagan, 1990) offers an approach to sn work and student-student interaction t atural applications for a foreign langu; im in which communication plays a key r< of social development can be reinfon jh cooperative group work in the fore ige class, as students are placed in a posit They have need and motivation to cornrni ith one another. lother cluster of strategies for creating c ) motivate communication is the devel of simulations, dialogs, and role pla ;s can provide a structure for communi id develop a situation that will later be j :ory or a fairy tale in the curriculum o don or role play the students will act out >le play moves a step beyond the dialog , students in a situation in which they on to cope with the unexpected or tting, using the material they have . i other classroom activities.
nt-Based Instruction
it-based instruction has arisen fri i foreign language immersion progr he standard curriculum while focu: ion in a second language. In conten :ion, the goals of the language curiiwiLu adened to include reinforcement of goals c ular elementary school curriculum. In -based foreign language lesson, the foreig je teacher carefully selects concepts fror ilar curriculum that are clearly defined an require an excessive vocabulary load. Th 1 takes into consideration the languag ontent skills, and cognitive skills require tudents in order to achieve success with th Content-based instruction is gaining mor re attention, because it allows schools t : the .goals of the second-language currict h some of the goals of the regular currict ontent-based instruction enables th breign language teacher to focus on acadc is and critical thinking skills, while, at th ne focusing on second language needs. ] : many more contexts for communicatio uld be possible if the language were taugt

corre'*1* Hies:'* jns:'-*
no-*-aiic *■-the* <■■ an •-■ ' rom the rest of the school program. jn of language and content goals also isely with the move toward commu-guage teaching and more holistic [n order for communication to take nust be some knowledge or informa-ared. In content-based teaching situa-iormation is the school curriculum, 5 develop communicative ability as >e information about measurement, rties, distances, and so forth.
Culture and Global Awareness
S-_i„ ■ learn about culture most effectively
:!:•-. aningful experiences with cultural
-., „ ; - her than through discussion, slides,
K-j - readings. Methodology used to pro-
v uC » and global awareness must relate to
;c-"* ;riences. Because the language itself is
-|i- )st important evidence of the culture
3, the children, it provides both an
— - - irting point and the obvious vehicle
•£- »■ learning. Letter, tape, and picture
e\z ith children from the target culture
z:~ * :w meaning and importance to the
.x? ■ f learning a language. Most impor-
Drmation from the culture must be a tJ t ^. ^f the activities of the classroom, attunes cultural information can- be the object ristrucrion in the same way that mathematics or ial studies curriculum content might provide focus. Cultural practices like bowing or hand-king can be employed as a part of daily rou-:s and classroom activities.
""" swing are meaningful, integrated strategies
on reading and writing.
The Language Experience Approach
1 I guage Experience Approach uses language d by the students to record experiences in The stories are used for reading activities :r as springboards for writing activities, are able to read the stories since the only ary used is that which came from their

own oral language. The sequence to a language experience lesson is the following (Hansen-Krening, 1982):
1. Teacher plans a shared experience for the class.
2. Students become directly involved in the expe¬rience.
3. A student responds orally to experience.
4. A student responds by writing (or the teacher writes what a student dictates).
5. A student reads the written response.
The language experience approach is used suc¬cessfully with both first- and second-language learners. In second/foreign language classes the experiences are often planned by the teacher since there is a need to maintain control over the vocab¬ulary load. In first language classes this is not the case, and many of the experiences for language experience stories come from outside of school. While the steps in the process are similar for both groups, the second/foreign language teacher spends much more time creating the experience and less time with the dictation process. The actu¬al language dictated by the children is usually modified and sometimes translated by the teacher at this step.
The language experience approach must be adapted somewhat for second language classrooms to allow for firmer direction from the teacher, but the central concept remains the same—use of the students' own vocabulary, language patterns, and background experiences to create the reading text.
Process Approach to Writing
The "writing process" encourages collaboration among writers and provides numerous opportuni¬ties to create and use meaningful discourse in writ¬ing (Enright & McCloskey, 1988). The six steps, which can be used in full group and small group settings, are
1. Pre-writing
2. Drafting
3. Sharing and responding to writing
4. Revising
5. Editing
6. Publishing

Chapter 12 / Methods in Elementary School Foreign Language Teaching 123

t least since Lambert, Just, and Segalowitz (1970), but certainly after Lambert and Tucker (1972) appeared, foreign language teachers of adults have grown increasingly interested in the idea of immersion-type or content-based ■ programs for language teaching which were developed originally with children. More recent¬ly, as the rush of demographic change has begun to be felt more intensely in higher education, Swain and Lapkin (1989) have asked explicitly: "What's the connection [between] Canadian immersion and adult second language teaching?" In fact, a spate of excellent books and articles have appeared in recent years about "compre-hension-based" and "discipline-based" second language teaching (e.g., Brinton, Snow, & Wesche, 1989; Short, 1991; Swaffar, Arens, & Byrnes, 1991; Courchene, Glidden, St. John, &c Therien, 1992; Richard-Amato & Snow, 1992).
In Chapter 13, Ann Masters Salomone shows specifically how the methods of Canadian .immersion experiments in elementary education are relevant to adult second (or foreign) language teaching. Whereas Swain and Lapkin (1982, 1989) had reviewed the results of Canadian-style immersion programs, showing that the methods of those programs are relevant to language and content teaching across the board, Salomone looks to the methods themselves rather than results common to immersion-type classrooms. Her review contains some interesting, if modest, surprises.
For instance, contrary to some of the claims that have been made on behalf of immersion approaches, it appears that immersion teachers do give some atten-tion, at least, to surface grammar. They even correct errors. In this connection, Helen Johnson's article on "defossilizing" {Chapter 25) is relevant. Perhaps the best answer to criticisms such as that of Hammerly (1987), who insists that immersion produces inferior competence in the target language, is to point to the results that can be achieved in context-rich (heavily scaffolded) settings where apparently even "fossilized" errors can be adjusted so that progress is made (see also Arevart & Nation, Chapter 27). At any rate, it comes out in Salomone's essay that grammar is not just taken for granted even in immersion programs. The implication is that perhaps it also ought not to be taken for granted in content-based instruction at higher levels as well. Clearly, this is a theme that has recurred from the eariy chapters of this book (see especially Chapter 5, about the Rassias methods).
PART 3 / Content-Based Language Programs for Adults 125

content-based approaches. Sternfeld (Chapter 18 in Part 4) will offer additional evidence along the same lines even in the case of rank beginners. The great advan-tage afforded by content-based teaching is that the linguistic forms through which the content is expressed achieve sufficient determinacy to become comprehensible. This sort of determinacy is missing from content-less utterances dropped out of the blue sky on hapless foreign language students in traditional foreign language curricula.
PART 3 / Content-Based Language Programs for Adults

Methods That Work (ตอนที่ 1)
Methods That Work (ตอนที่ 2)

(ตอนที่ 1)