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Sentence Combining [A Composing Book] {William Strong} (ตอนที่ 1)

(ตอนที่ 1)

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A Composing Book
William Strong
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A Composing Book

William Strong
V Utah State University

McGraw-Hill, Inc.
New York St. Louis San Francisco Auckland Bogota Caracas sbon London AAnHrid Mpvirn fltu Mil*™ M~«*—:■■ *■—nk" ■•

SENTENCE COMBINING A Composing Book International Editions 1994
Exclusive rights by McGraw-Hill Book Co. - Singapore for manufacture and export. This book cannot be re-exported from the country to which it is consigned by McGraw-Hill.
Copyright © 1994,1983, 1973 by McGraw-Hill, Inc. All rights reserved. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a data base or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher.
Credits appear on page 235 and on this page by reference. j
1234567890 APL PMP 9 8 7 6 5 4
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Strong, William, (date).
Sentence combining: a composing book / William Strong. - 3rd ed.
P- cm. , . ,i ,
ISBN 0-07-062535-2 i • ' '
1. English language - Rhetoric. 2. English language - Grammer.
I. Title. ■ ' ' '
[PE1408.S7713 1994]
808\042-dc20 ' • . . 93-20825
This book was set in Goudy Old Style by Better Graphics, Inc.
The editors were Alison Husting Zetterquist, Laurie PiSierra, and Jean Akers;
the designer and illustrator was Armen Kojoyian;
the production supervisor was Annette Mayeski.
When ordering this title, use ISBN 0-07-113904-4
Printed in Singapore

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Preface xiii
Introduction to Sentence Combining 1
Just Do It 3
Sentence Combining in Action 4
Paragraphs: A Context for Combining 5
Language as Teacher 7
Developing Speech-into-Writing Skills 9
Beyond Sentence Combining 11
Warm-Up Combining 15
Speech-into-Writing Practice 16 Hints on Sentence Combining 17
Bungee Jumping 18 Value Judgment 19 Street-Smart 20 Cruising Main 22 Nice Surprise 23 Beauty Queen 25 Parable 1 26 Parable 2 28 Picnic Lunch 29 Disney Pilgrims 31 First Love 32 Hispanic Movement 34

viii Contents
Sassy Sauce 38 House Special 39 Breakfast Routine 40 No Sweat 42 Name Game 44 Bait and Switch 45 Hurricane Behavior 47 Cramming for Exams 49 A Man with Heart 50
Intermediate Combining 55
Training Your Automatic Pilot 56 A Pilot for Writing 57
Vietnam Veterans Memorial 58
Gambling Fever 60
Pumped Up 62
Nuclear Waste 64
Magical Names 65
Man's World 67
Ladies' Man 69
Championship Play-off 70
Ancient Struggle 72
Air Pollution 74
Summer Rain 76
Japanese Business 78
Final Exam 79
First Settlers 81
Motorcycle Pack 83
Means to Meaning 84
l i i I ■!■■ i i»j-»j I ii w i e-\ wr* i+\ / WA

Chicano Literature 89 Big Ada 91 Moral Dilemma 93 Crucial Pass 94
Advanced Combining 99
A Package for Sentences 100 Developing Paragraph Skills 101
Classroom Crisis 102 School Reform 104 Black Music 106 Copycats 107 A Right to Die 109 Final Rights 111 Smoking Facts 112 More Smoking Facts 113 Hypnotic Trance 115 Hypnosis Applications 117 Shoeshine Boy 118 Executive Traveler 120 Before AIDS 121 Black Death 122 Alcohol Facts 125 More Alcohol Facts 127 Genetic Defects 128 Genetic Counseling 130 Marijuana Facts 131 More Marijuana Facts 132
Innnnfisfi Schools 134

X Contents
Unclustered Combining 7 39
A Process of Tinkering 140 A Personal Writing Style 141
Chain Saw 142 Desperate Chef 143 Hawaiian Hula 144 Opposite Personalities 145 Morning Shower 146 Orchard Memory 147 Winning Attitude 149 Ginseng Special 150 Tying the Knot 152 ParableS 153 Karate Explained 154 World Population 155 First Light 157 Video Dating 158 Apartment 7 159 Homeless 161 Black Holes 163 Bar Incident 164 Water-Skier 165 The Potter 167 Coming Home 168 American Pace 170
Recombining Practice 173

Contents xi From The Woman Warrior,
by Maxine Hong Kingston 1 76
From A Summer Life,
By Gary Soto 1 78
From Desert Exile,
by Yoshiko Uchida 180
From Growing Up,
by Russell Baker I 81
From An American Childhood,
by Annie Dillard 183
From Strawberry Road,
by Yoshimi Ishikawa 1 86
From I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings,
by Maya Angelou 1 87
From Blue Highways,
by William Least Heat Moon 1 90
From Two-Part Invention,
by Madeleine L'Engle 1 91
From Starting from Home,
by Milton Meltzer 1 93
From The Joy Luck Club,
by Amy Tan I 94
From Et Cetera, Et Cetera,
by Lewis Thomas 1 97
From The Story of My Life,
by Helen Keller 198
From A River Runs Through It,
by Norman Maclean 200
From Lakota Woman,
by Mary Crow Dog and Richard Erdoes 202
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xil Contents
Sentence Combining and Writing Process 209
Inner Game, Outer Game 209
A "Shaping Up, Shipping Out" Model 211
How to Generate Ideas (Talking, Listing, Clustering,
Sketching, Freewriting, Questioning, Outlining) 213
Sentence and Paragraph Strategies 221
Parallelism in Sentences 221 Variety in Sentences 224 Choosing Effective Sentences 227 Paragraph Organization 229 Paragraph Packaging 232
Credits 235

The third edition of Sentence Combining: A Composing Book continues to emphasize playful but thoughtful practice in sentence construction, drawing on research in language learning and writing. Exercises in combining and revising remain at the heart of the book, just as opportunities for collabora¬tive learning remain central to its teaching approaches.
Here, three sections of "open" combining (Units 1, 2, and 3) are organized in order of increasing difficulty. Additionally, all sentence-com-bining (SC) exercises have been revised and updated, with material added to address the needs and interests of a diverse (and often nontraditional) audience. Unit 3 offers a new emphasis on expository and persuasive writing in a multiparagraph format—this to provide practice with the discourse modes so essential for college success.
Concluding the third edition are unclustered SC exercises, as well as recombining work drawn from highly skilled writers. The unclustered for-mat (Unit 4) helps students decide "what goes with what"—basic deci-sions, of course, for any developing writer. Unit 5 invites students to recombine the "deconstructed" sentences of superb stylists, to study how their versions compare with original texts, and to write follow-up essays. Recombining emphasizes, in particular, authors from diverse back-grounds—among them, Amy Tan, William Least Heat Moon, Maya Angelou, and Gary Soto.
Finally, instructors familiar with earlier editions will note that this one contains new back-of-the-book lessons. Appendix A, "Sentence Combin-ing and Writing Process," helps student writers understand the dynamics of writing and provides advice on seven strategies for generating ideas. Appen¬dix B, "Sentence and Paragraph Strategies," provides minilessons dealing with parallel structure, sentence variety, choosing effective sentences, paragraph organization, and paragraph packaging.
Typical SC exercises feature a brief introduction, a Writing Tip, and an Invitation for follow-up writing. The Invitations serve as springboards for personal application of skills. Writings that emerge from SC Invitations may be kept in portfolios, much like journal entries, and then used for in-class workshops or for points of departure in instructor-designed assign¬ments. Thus, while the exercises develop syntactic fluency—a fact well-documented in SC research literature—the follow-up Invitations develop what most instructors call uniting fluency, an increased willingness to com¬mit words to paper.
In-class workshops provide students with fpprlka^l- ^« *-U^ o,,^~— "rtL":-

xiv Preface
typical workshop approach asks students to work first in pairs and small groups, comparing sentence choices; this activity is then enlarged to in-clude the entire class. Several activities for collaborative learning— including classroom arrangement, oral combining, and the use of transpar-encies and pens with water-soluble ink—are described in the Instructor's Manual The Manual also has transparency (or photocopy) masters that serve as an Answer Key for the recombining exercises in Unit 5.
The aim of this edition, then, is to offer an abundance of updated exercises so that students have a wide variety of material for daily practice. In so doing, this book extends what teachers and researchers have learned about the pedagogical power of sentence combining. Simply put, this book aims to help students work together as an empowered community, putting their heads together to figure out patterns of syntax.
The rationale for this approach comes from "constructivist" learning theory. Its key assumption is that whatever tasks learners can do with the help of others, in structured contexts, they can eventually do on their own. It was the great Russian linguist Lev Vygotsky who articulated this theory and proposed a "zone of proximal development" in language learning. Such ideas challenged behaviorism, of course; but equally important, they laid the foundation for today's teaching approaches that create a social context for the development of writing skills.
The social and intellectual contexts provided by a teacher—when cou-pled with the "scaffolding" of exercises in sentence combining—encourage students to learn from each other and from written text itself. As many teachers have discovered, students make tremendous gains in self-esteem, alertness, and writing savvy once they more beyond their fears and begin working together in genuine ways. Combining exercises are no panacea, but they do enable students to focus their language-learning energies and to figure out patterns for themselves.
The built-in flexibility of Sentence Combining makes it useful as a main text in developmental composition or as a skill-building supplement in other writing courses.
On a personal note, I owe special thanks to my friends in the National Writing Project. With them in mind, I have tried to shape this edition so that it is a useful, student-friendly adjunct to a writing program—in other words, a modern resource for informed, spirited teaching rather than a "busywork curriculum."
I also want to acknowledge the unsung work of many deeply committed colleagues—in secondary schools, community colleges, writing centers,

;mall learn from thousands of such writing instructors. They applaud the SC
D |n, approach because "it works"; and I applaud their efforts that make it work.
ng Their students—and our nation's communities—owe them much thanks.
SpaIv Special thanks go to the following reviewers for their careful reading of
:tor*s and comments on the third edition: Michael Berbertch, Galveston College;
that Gertrude Coleman, Middlesex County College; Maureen Hogan O'Brien,
Springfield Technical Community College; Vanessa Jackson, Del Mar
lated College; Jerry Olson, Middlesex County College; Margaret Pigott, Oakland
ticet University; Richard Prystowsky, Irvine Valley College; Edith Wollin,
rned North Seattle Community College; and, Mary Zingg, Manatee Community
book College.
trim? Finally, I wish to thank Alison Husting Zetterquist, Laurie PiSierra, and
Jean Akers, my hardworking editors at McGraw-Hill. Their attention to
njnp this project is very much appreciated.
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laij William Strong
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Sentence Combining
A Composing Book


to Sentence Combining

2 Introduction to Sentence Combining
Sentence Combining is a book with a simple aim: to help you strengthen your writing skills and understand stylistic choices in written English. Its ap¬proach invites you to put short, choppy sentences together to make ones that are interesting and readable. By doing this, you'll explore options in writing and move closer toward a clear, personal style.
As the subtitle says, this is a composing book. And composing means doing writing, not just talking about it. So let's start with an illustration:
Sentence combining improves fluency. It transfers skills to real writing. This is according to researchers
One way to combine these sentences is probably obvious to you:
Sentence combining improves fluency and transfers skills to real writing, according to researchers.
But you also have other options, ones you might prefer. Here are just a few choices:
Besides improving fluency, sentence combining transfers skills to real writing, according to researchers.
OR According to researchers, sentence combining improves fluency; in addition, it transfers skills to real writing.
OR Not only does sentence combining improve fluency, according to researchers, but it also transfers skills to real writing.
OR Researchers say that improvements in fluency—and a transfer of skills to real writing—result from sentence combining.
Once you play with sentence options, you begin to break loose from the "and-and-and" style of writing you mastered in elementary school. In addition, working with options sets the stage for other choices you make as a writer—choices like wording, sequencing of ideas, and paragraph devel-

Introduction to Sentence Combining 3
opment. In short, you take charge of your writing with practice in sentence combining.
Writing skills are best learned through experience—through -doing. And doing writing means taking chances. Clearly, no one learns to swim by sitting on the bank and playing it safe. The same is true for telling jokes, riding skateboards, programming a computer, making love, organizing the block for political action—and writing. We learn what we dp.
But taking chances, especially in writing, may give you the jitters. After all, you've been taught that correctness counts, and you don't want to risk mistakes. Besides, mistakes in writing can make you look stupid and lower your grade. So you ask yourself: Mistakes? Who needs them?
You do, of course. The simple truth is that no one learns anything, including writings without making mistakes. For example, in learning child' hood skills—talking, walking upright, reading—you made lots of mistakes. So lighten up. Mistakes help you learn by showing you what not to do. No one is going to penalize you or embarrass you for the mistakes you make in sentence combining.
Of course, skills are also learned through practice. If you want to get better at skateboarding, playing the guitar, or creating sentences, you practice a lot, not just once in a while. Moreover, if you want to increase your physical strength and endurance—or your mental concentration and memory—you train with those ends in mind, gradually increasing the level of challenge. Think of sentence combining as a kind of language workout, a training program for writing.
Finally, skills are acquired through feedback. Beginning skiers, for exam-pie, need feedback about what's causing them to flail hopelessly out of control down the slopes. Coaching, visual imagery, videotape—all of these can help novices practice^ the basic moves so essential to the smooth, "natural" flow of expert skiing. And the act of skiing itself-—sometimes exhilarating, sometimes exasperating—provides additional feedback.
Feedback about your skill in sentence combining comes from three human sources: your instructor, other students in class, and yourself. Some¬times your instructor will offer advice on sentence construction or point out usage principles. Often you'll team up with other students in workshops that compare various sentences, yours included. And frequently you'll be

4 Introduction to Sentence Combining
reading and rereading your own sentences, tinkering with wording and si
making adjustments in punctuation so that the writing feels right. p

c e< si si If you've flipped through the book, you've seen lists of sentences, mostly ai organized into clusters. Let's consider options for the cluster of sentences shown below. Try whispering the options for sentence combining (SC, for short) to hear their differences. The sub had faked to the baseline. F The sub had twisted past his defender. The sub had banked a shot off the glass. The sub had sent the crowd into ecstasy. F In ea wi sn v The sub had faked to the baseline, twisted past his defender, banked a shot off the glass, and sent the crowd into ecstasy. OR After faking to the baseline and twisting past his defender, the sub had banked a shot off the glass, sending the crowd into ecstasy. r» pa yo OR l The sub—faking to the baseline, twisting past his defender, banking a shot off the glass—had sent the crowd into ecstasy. Reading through these SC options, you may be surprised at their differ-ences. All are clear and correct, yet each achieves a different effect. Which is best? That depends on context, the larger paragraph of which these sentences are a part. Perhaps your vote, in some contexts, would go to this sentence rather than the ones above: With a fake to the baseline, the sub had twisted past his defender and then banked a shot off the glass. The crowd was ecstatic. Notice the impact of this option—a short, dramatic sentence standing by itself. This example shows that the goal of combining isn't simply to make long sentences. Rather, the goal is to make good sentences and to choose the best sentence for the situation. Sometimes you'll deliberately choose a *m Introduction to Sentence Combining 5 and tostly ;nces •, for short, simple sentence over a more complex one. Why? Because brevity packs a punch. The point, remember, is that SC exercises have many right answers. You can rearrange sentences, change nouns like ecstasy into adjectives like ecstatic, and even add details if you choose. By working with sentences in such creative ways, you make them your own and speed up the transfer of skills to your real writing. Here's an example of rearranged sentences with added details: An ecstatic crowd had watched the sub fake to the baseline and twist past a frantic, backpedaling defender—his shot banking softly off the glass to send the championship into overtime. keda shad ;inga iiffer-'hich these D this r and PARAGRAPHS: A CONTEXT FOR COMBINING In SC exercises with clustered sentences, you'll see two numbers next to each sentence: the first refers to the cluster, the second to the sentence within the cluster. Double numbers speed up in-class discussion and work in small groups. Some activities—like the one below—have less than twenty sentences. But regardless of length, this book's exercises develop your sense of written paragraphs,, Because sentences are linked together in a paragraph context, your SC practice can help ypu understand the structure of paragraphs—the way sentences "hang together." Z> Looking Back
1.1 Shadows filled the coach's office.
1.2 The coach bent over his metal desk.
1.3 He cleaned out. the bulging files.

ngby make loose iose a

2;1 He was ready to dump an envelope.
2.2 A photo caught his attention.
2.3 The photo was fading.
2.4 The photo was from an earlier era.

6 Introduction to Sentence Combining
3.1 The young man's face was thin.
3.2 The young man's face was determined.
3.3 His eyes hungered for a chance to play.

4.1 The coach thought back.
4.2 The coach remembered something.
4.3 He had pulled a sub off the bench.
4.4 He had yelled instructions.
4.5 The lad had ignored them.

5.1 The sub had faked to the baseline.
5.2 The sub had twisted past his defender.
5.3 The sub had banked a shot off the glass.
5.4 The sub had sent the crowd into ecstasy.
Each cluster represents a potential sentence in a paragraph. Of course, you're in charge of your learning. Therefore, it's you who decides whether to split a given cluster into two sentences, leave it as is, or combine it with another. In this way you can adjust the exercise so that it meets your skill level.
How do you do such an exercise? First, scan the sentences so that you sense the paragraph context; as you do this, whisper a possible sentence or two—nothing fancy, just the first ones that come to mind. As a second step, try different sentence openers or tinker with phrasing, perhaps rear-ranging ideas or experimenting with connectors. Then write out the sen^-tence choices that feel and sound right—the ones that seem to work best in context.
Because these steps take time, you may be tempted to hurry them. Resist the temptation. After all, there's no point in stringing words and phrases in random, haphazard order. The idea is to stay in charge—and to develop your sentence skills with care. Sentence combining works when you work with it.
Your instructor may assign SC exercises as part of a regular homework routine, similar to keeping a journal. Or perhaps you'll combine sentences in class. Whatever the case, you'll often have one or more polished paragraphs in hand. Your instructor may collect your work for photocopy-ing, put you in a workshop group with others, or hold a class discussion. Perhaps you'll be asked to put your paragraph on the board or copy it onto a transparency. If your school has a computer lab, your paragraphs—along

Introduction to Sentence Combining 7

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Imagine such a workshop situation, with everyone's work on the line, yours included. Find the best paragraph below—Version X, Y, or Z—and claim it as your own. Take your time with this reading, listening carefully to the sentences in each paragraph.
VERSION X. (1) As shadows filled the coach's office, the coach bent over his metal desk and cleaned out the bulging files. (2) He was ready to dump an envelope when a photo caught his attention. (3) The photo was fading and from an earlier era, (4) The young man's face was thin and determined, and his eyes hungered for a chance to play. (5) The coach thought back and remembered something. (6) He had pulled a sub off the bench and yelled instructions, but the lad had ignored them. (7) The sub had faked to the baseline, twisted past his defender, and banked a shot off the glass. (8) The sub had sent the crowd into ecstasy.
VERSION Y. (1) With shadows filling his office, the coach bent over his metal desk, cleaning out the bulging files. (2) He was ready to dump an envelope, but a fading photo from an earlier era caught his attention. (3) The young man's face was thin and determined; his eyes hungered for a chance to play. (4) As the coach thought back, he remembered that he had pulled a sub off the bench and yelled instruc¬tions that were ignored by the lad. (5) The sub had faked to the baseline and twisted past his defender. (6) His shot, banked off the glass, had sent the crowd into ecstasy.
VERSION Z. (1) In a shadow-filled office, the coach bent over his metal desk to clean out bulging files. (2) He was ready to dump an envelope when a fading photo from an earlier era caught his attention. (3) The young man's face, thin and determined, hungered for a chance to play. (4) The coach thought back, remembering that he had pulled a sub off the bench and then yelled instructions that the lad ignored. (5) Faking to the baseline and twisting past his defender, the sub had banked a shot off the glass—the crowd's ticket to ecstasy.
Let's pause for a moment before discussing the paragraph you've chosen as the best of the three. What do we mean by "best"? How do we know it when

8 Introduction to Sentence Combining
Making such a choice is both complex and personal—a little like a clothing decision. After being attracted to a specific garment, for example, you find the right size as well as the colors that complement your skin tones. Your decision is informed by magazines and TV, as well as by the fashions you see at school, on the job, or in your neighborhood. You develop a feel for what's socially appropriate. And because you're alert to prices, you probably know the difference between a rip-off and a bargain.
Similarly, your choice of the best paragraph depends on what sounds good and feels right to you. It's based on your own standards and values. Everything you've ever read—from comics to classics—helps you know what you like and don't like about a particular piece of writing. Put another way, written language has been teaching you its complex lessons for many years, just like an infinitely patient teacher.
Experts agree that reading skills support your skills as a writer. In fact, although you may not realize it, reading has taught you far more about spelling, punctuation, and sentence structure than any lists, drills, or grammar books you may have studied. The closer you read—and the more you read—the better you'll understand how writing works; and the bet¬ter you understand writing, of course, the more informed your decisions will be.
Since language becomes your teacher whenever you read, think how much you could learn if you consciously attended to the writing lessons all around you. First, you'd answer all your own questions a^out punctuation, usage, and phrasing by simply observing what good writers do. And then— because knowledge is power—you'd apply what you had learned, making it your own.
This is exactly what we do with sentence combining. When you engage in SC practice and follow-up analysis, what you're doing is reading like a writer. Let's see what you can learn from paying attention to Versions X, Y, and Z, the three paragraphs from the "Looking Back" exercise above.
VERSION X. Many readers see this paragraph as okay—but maybe the least effective of the three. All sentences, except the opener, have the same rhythm. The paragraph seems to lack variety—like a mono¬tone speaker. Sentence 1 is awkward; it repeats the word coach rather than using a pronoun like he or his to smooth out the phrasing. Sentences 2 and 3 are choppy; see also sentences 7 and 8, which could be combined, A pattern of "and-and-and" runs through the sentences.
VERSION Y. Most readers see this as an excellent paragraph. It has sentence variety and uses pronouns (he and his) in skilled ways to
-..L-^:^....- r_„ C—*. 1 : 11 *. .._J_ „_ i

Introduction to Sentence Combining 9
like a provides an effective contrast to the longer sentences that surround it.
mple, The sentences that follow are clear and varied. Sentence 6, in particu-
tones. lar, makes nice use of interruption for closing emphasis. This para-
shions graph shows skill and good control.
ta/ee* VERSION Z. Some readers, though not all, strongly prefer this
}' You paragraph to the other two. It uses sophisticated phrasing ("shadow-
filled office") in sentence 1. The sentences that follow—especially
ou s sentence 3—show excellent control and variety. Sentences 4 and 5
alues- work well; both use participle constructions (in the phrases that begin
know with "remembering" and "faking") but in different positions. Sen-
10 r fence 5 ends with a flourish—an interesting surprise for the reader.
manY All in all, this paragraph has style.
I fact, Does the above analysis mean that Version X is "wrong"? Of course not.
about What this analysis suggests is that Version X has room for specific improve¬
rs, or ments. The alternative sentences in Versions Y and Z provide clues to what
t more those changes might be.
.e bet- The point of comparing paragraphs in this way is to develop your critical
:isions reading skills—the habit of reading like a writer. The focus here is not on
content, because the ideas are virtually the same. Instead, SC practice
c how directs you to the writing itself—and the writer's skill in relating one
)ns all sentence to another.
ation, If you have a how-to-do-it interest in writing, you can probably see the
ien— potential of this approach, one that has rewarded thousands of students just

cing it like you.
ngage like a X,Y,
, have Language acts as your teacher in another way too. Since birth, you've been
nono- enrolled in an intensive, nonstop language course—one called talking.
rather You've learned incredibly complex patterns of syntax without any books,
asing. teaching machines, or lectures. Just by being exposed to speech and using it
could [n everyday life, you've figured out its basic rules. You build on such
ences. knowledge when you develop writing skills because writing is "frozen
It has speech."
ayS to Of course, there are also differences between speech and writing. In

10 Introduction to Sentence Combining

sometimes use their responses to clarify things in your own mind. In writing, by contrast, you often must imagine the reader's response and develop your message without the benefit of a back-and-forth interchange. Moreover, you generally never know what's really going on in your reader's mind.
Learning to write means building on the speech skills you already pos-sess—and transforming that power into print. Again, this is not to say that talk and writing are exactly alike. What it means, quite simply, is that writing skills develop from (and extend) the patterns of talk that you learned as a child.
And what if English is not your first language? For you, learning written English may pose special challenges. On the other hand, you probably don't have the same ttbIinders,, to language that some native speakers have. And because you already possess a wide array of thinking and survival skills—not to mention those of your native language—you can use these to your advantage as a learner. In vocabulary learning, for example, you can use words you already know to "hook" new words in English.
SC exercises build on your deeply internalized patterns of speech. Work¬ing with SC exercises helps you see these patterns in print; but equally important, working with others helps you learn many new patterns, ones not usually found in talk. As you pay attention, your speech-into-writing skills begin to develop.
In Units 1, 2, and 3—basic, intermediate, and advanced levels of "open"
combining—you can pay attention by noticing the Writing Tip that fol¬
lows each exercise. This feature offers specific hints about connectors,
sentence openers, or other writing *ntdves. HeYe's an example from the
"Looking Back" exercise: " * ■■.■■.**.,? t ^ f < Writing Tip Try using a participle (like remembering or faking) in clusters 4 and 5. It's worth noting here that Unit 3 offers multiparagraph practice in expository and persuasive uniting—the modes essential for college success. In this section, SC exercises serve much like "bookends" for your writing. Simply put, the purpose of Unit 3 is to help you with organizational skills as well as sentence skills, particularly as you read Appendix A and Appen¬dix B. Units 4 and 5 present new challenges. In Unit 4, for example, you practice deciding "what goes with what"—developing your skills of se-quencing and arranging content. In Unit 5, you work with the sentences of origin Also, "Wait but he The that a activit writing board I exercis / in youi happer Clea no one to ones you've for otb Here above: It ca to in1 hii m< pa th. tot sw wb Introduction to Sentence Combining 11 id. In original text. This process helps extend your skills of reading like a writer. e and Also, Unit 5 exercises offer a variety of Invitations for personal writing. lange. :ader's BEYOND SENTENCE COMBINING y pos- ^ "Wait a minute," you may be thinking. "Combining may teach me skills, s but how do I apply what I've learned?" 1 ' The answer to this question depends on your response to the Invitations ]. that accompany SC exercises. As the name implies, these are optional aitten activities, not command performances. Most invite a paragraph or two of writing to move you beyond combining. In this way SC provides a spring- . /\na board for your writing practice. Here's an Invitation for the "Looking Back" exercise: —not > your
in use
^ork- (nu-ftation Extend this story by focusing on the coach or the sub
qually in your follow-up writing. Why did the coach save this photograph? What
, ones happened to the sub?

open" Clearly, some Invitations will hold more appeal than others; clearly, too,
at fol' no one expects you to respond to all of them. The point is simply to respond
ictors, to ones that interest you and to try, consciously, to apply the writing skills
m the you've been learning. This process of modeling and imitation has worked
for others; in fact, its roots go back 2500 years in western civilization.
Here's one example of writing that might emerge from the Invitation
v . above:
ig) m
It was in overtime, the final twenty seconds of the game, that the sub
came through again. Snagging a pass, he whipped the ball across court
ice in to set up a fast break that scored an easy two points. Then he
ess. In intercepted another hvbounds pass and whirled into the air with a
riting. high arching jump shot. It hit the back rim, then lifted like a rising
kills as moon against a glass horizon. Taking his own rebound, the sub cut
ippen- past a weak defender and went up again—his fingers now following
the ball as it left his hand. This time it dropped like a stone, hardly
i} you touching the net. A wild melee had followed as a hometown crowd
of se- swarmed to the floor, engulfing the team and the grinning substitute,
whose sweatv arms embraced the coach's neck. "Hev." he had

12 Introduction to Sentence Combining
To develop writing fluency, many students alternate their daily practice in a writing journal with SC exercises and follow-up Invitations. Such a plan makes sense. It balances the freedom of personal journal writing with the structure and challenge of brief skill-building activities.
You'll find it valuable to keep your SC practice in a working portfolio. As you look back at your SC work over several weeks, you'll probably be pleasantly surprised by the clear improvements in quality. Also, many students use this portfolio as a starting point for their instructor's writing assignments.
Make sure to read "Sentence Combining and Writing Process" (Appen-dix A) and "Sentence and Paragraph Strategies" (Appendix B) at the back of this book. Appendix A, which provides tips on generating ideas, will help you understand SC practice in the context of writing process. Appen¬dix B offers mini-lessons that deal with parallelism and sentence variety, choosing effective sentences, and concepts of paragraphing.
Good luck with Sentence Combining/

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16 Unit I
In the Introduction you learned how people spend childhood in an intense Ha
language course, with the world acting as their teacher. We learn to talk issues
naturally and painlessly, without any instruction, drills, or formal study. traini
Simply by being exposed to talk and trying to make sense, we internalize explo
complex signaling systems of language. By age five or so, we're virtual incre;
experts in the basic speech patterns of our native tongue. As
The implications of this fact are important. Practice in sentence combin- to in
ing doesn't teach you anything new about language. What it does instead is coursi
build upon what you've already learned. You have a wealth of language imprc
power "beneath the surface," just waiting to be tapped. Combining brings than
many sentence patterns to the surface so you can refine them in your gourn
writing. It also strengthens your transcribing fluency and helps you relax. more.
your i
Because speech is our primary language system, sentence combining is Whet
basically an oral process. It invites you to do what skilled writers do— goal i
namely, to whisper sentences to yourself and to select those that sound best. Leavi
It develops your skill of listening for the swaying, elegant curves of some Becai
sentences and the hard, rhythmic regular punch of others. It helps you craft \^s
your prose so that pause—and emphasis—can do their work. togetl
Although writing depends on speech, it also goes beyond it. You can prove ls to
this to yourself by transcribing a few minutes of tape-recorded talk from choic
school (a lecture in your history course, say) and reading it back to yourself. j-|e
You'll find that the recorded sentences don't really sound like the ones from magazines or books. The alternate test, of course, is to read writing aloud. Do the sentences on this page, for example, sound like talk?
In speech, the process of combining (or transforming) ideas is completely automatic, and we're not usually aware of our own processes. In writing, however, the process often causes us to pause. Why? Because writing is one-word-after-another-in-space. The spoken sentence, once uttered, is gone forever; the written sentence, on the other hand, can be studied, tinkered with, turned over and over. Its options multiply before our eyes. We imagine different possibilities because we see the sentence before us.
In sentence combining, then, you'll focus on synthesis—how sentences go together—rather than on grammatical analysis. Our underlying assump¬tion is that complex sentences are comprised of smaller ones (called "kernel sentences" by linguists). You'll learn a variety of ways to connect and relate

Warm-Up Combining 1

ntense to talk study. rnalize virtual
>mbin' tead is iguage brings ii your relax.

Having an automatic pilot frees your mind to think about the important issues of writing—-content, organization, and audience. Our aim in such training isn't to name parts of speech or recite rules; instead, we're trying to explore sentence options. You'll probably write longer sentences with increased modification; but you'll learn how to tighten your writing too.
As a natural outgrowth of your work with sentence options, you're bound to increase your working knowledge of punctuation and grammar. Of course, a technical knowledge of grammar—without application—will not improve your ability to make sentences with grace and precision any more than a knowledge of chemistry—without application—will make you a gourmet chef. Grammar and punctuation are tools of the trade, nothing more. While such tools are useful, your skill as a writer depends mainly on your ability to make sentences, not on your ability to label them.

img is s do— \d best. f some >u craft
i prove k from )urself. es from aloud.
pletely /riting, is one-is gone nkered ;s. We
itences .ssump-'kernel i relate

When doing SC exercises on your own or with others, remember that your goal is good sentences—the best you can muster—not simply long ones. Leaving a sentence uncombined is always one of your basic choices. Why? Because brevity is often better.
It's also worth remembering that you learn nothing by putting words together in random or haphazard ways. Take your time. The idea, after all, is to take control—and to improve your skills by paying attention to the choices you make.
Here are some hints on working with exercises:
1. As you combine sentences, listen to them. Say them aloud to a writing partner, or whisper them to yourself. Take risks by experi¬menting with new patterns. Imitate sentences that appeal to you.
2. To activate decision making, jot down a sentence. Then read it in the context of previous sentence choices. Make revisions as necessary. When you decide which version you prefer, try to figure out why.
3. Compare your sentences with those of other students. Watch for stylistic patterns—habits of writing—in your sentences. Con¬sciously vary your patterns to flex your language muscles.
4. Use the Writing Tip feature regularly. Then, as you finish an SC exercise, double-check your punctuation and spelling for accu¬racy. Make proofreading a regular habit, a matter of personal

18 Unit!
5. Go beyond the exercises by accepting Invitations for follow-up writing. Share this writing with workshop partners, and enjoy what they have written. As you look over this writing, find opportunities to apply SC skills.
Don't draw the conclusion from these hints that SC practice is grim business. Sentence combining is fun because the process has lots of right answers and because it allows you to learn from others, not just from confusing rules.
So think of it as a game you can't lose.
And play for all you're worth.
Z> Bungee Jumping
"It's a rush," some people claim—strapping bungee cords to their ankles and leaping out into space. Would you do it on a dare?
1.1 The moment of truth arrived.
1.2 Max had felt raw panic.

2.1 He stood atop the bungee tower.
2.2 He felt a jackhammer in his chest.

3.1 His mind screamed one repeated thought.
3.2 "What am I doing here?"

4.1 Far below was the parking lot.
4.2 Car windows glinted in the sun.

5.1 Traffic streamed by on the highway.
5.2 A small plane droned in the distance.

6.1 Max squeezed his eyes shut.
6.2 Max wished he'd never accepted the dare.
7.1 "You're eighteen," he told himself.

Warm- Up Combining 19

low-up I enjoy
h find

8.1 Then suddenly he was weightless.
8.2 He was falling headlong toward earth.

is grim >f right .t from

Writing Tip Try adding an -ing ending to one of the verbs in cluster 2. Try where as a connector in cluster 4.

Give your reasons why Max and thousands of other Americans have "taken the plunge" with bungee jumping. Explain why you will (or won't) follow his lead.



Cheating in schools is a common problem—one that forces value judg-ments. What do you think? Is cheating on exams okay?
1.1 Carol was working hard on her test.
1.2 Sue slipped her a note.

2.1 She unfolded the paper carefully.
2.2 She didn't want her teacher to see.

Unit I
3.1 The note asked for help on a question. 2
3.2 The question was important. 2

4.1 Carol looked down at her paper.
4.2 She thought about the class's honor system. **
5.1 Everyone had made a pledge.
5.2 The pledge was not to cheat.
6.1 Carol didn't want to go back on her word. ^
6.2 Sue was her best friend. ^

7.1 Time was running out. 5
7.2 She had to make up her mind. 5
8.1 Her mouth felt dry.
8.2 Her mouth felt tight. ^
6 6
Writing Tip In cluster 6, try a connector like but, although, or however. Note that a connector like because does not make sense.

invitation Finish the story by explaining what Carol does and the reasons for her value judgment. Or write about a personal value judgment that you had to make.

8 8 8

O Street-Smart
. Wnti
Does loud rap music turn you on? How about boom boxes? Stewart thinks
everybody shares his tastes—and maybe two observers do.
1.1 Stewart swaggered down the street. /
1.2 He clicked his fingers. describ
t-\/-it-»t-»o/4 K ie> ft timbre

Warm-Up Combining 21
2.1 He was tuned into pulsing rhythms.
2.2 The rhythms came from his boom box.

3.1 The sound jerked ahead of him.
3.2 The sound bounced ahead of him.
3.3 The sound was hard-core rap music.

4.1 It announced his arrival to shoppers.
4.2 It announced his arrival to storekeepers.
4.3 It announced his arrival to girls in the cafe.
5.1 One girl giggled and blushed.
5.2 She tried to look bored.
5.3 She tried to look very cool.

6.1 Another arched one eyebrow.
6.2 She covered her mouth with one hand.
6.3 Her mouth was smiling.
7.1 Stewart circled around both of them.
7.2 Stewart did his lip-synch routine.
7.3 Stewart let his shoulders dip and bob.

does and al value

8.1 He enjoyed the street scene's tension,
8.2 He enjoyed their flirtation.
8.3 Their flirtation was coy

rt thinks

Writing Tip Try combining clusters 3 and 4 by using announcing as a key word.

Describe what happens next in this street scene. Or describe an incident from the street scene you see every day.

Unit 1

Why is cruising such a popular activity for many young adults? Think about one experience, and share it with workshop partners.
LI The night is warm and bright.
1.2 Low riders cruise the main drag.
1.3 The low riders are glittering.

2.1 Their bodies scream for attention.
2.2 Their bodies are sleek.
2.3 Their bodies are gleaming.

3.1 There is a rumble of exhaust.
3.2 The rumble is thundering.
3.3 The cars pause at stoplights.
3.4 Drivers rev their engines.
4.1 Lights explode off the scene.
4*2 The explosion is soft.
4.3 The scene is shimmering.
5.1 The boys wear their masks.
5.2 The masks are sullen.
5.3 The masks are tough-looking.

6. 6. 6.
7. 7. 7. 7.
8. 8. 8. 8.

It's gre; time th
2. 2. 2,


Warm-Up Combining
6.1 The girls are decked out in hairdos.
6.2 The hairdos are bizarre.
6.3 The hairdos are just for cruising.

7.1 It is like a supercarnival.
7.2 The supercarnival is weird.
7.3 It is part of our mating rites.
7.4 The mating rites are national.

8.1 This happens at the far end of Main Street.
8.2 The cars circle through a parking lot.
8.3 The parking lot is deserted.
8.4 The cars head back the other way.
Writing Tip Try opening cluster 7 with the word like for sentence variety.

Use this paragraph to introduce a personal cruising experience—or explain the psychology behind this activity.
It's great when someone notices how well you're doing. When was the last time that happened to you? Recall such an occasion.
1.1 It was Friday night.
1.2 Tony was feeling good.

2.1 He had worked hard.
2.2 He had gotten a raise.
2.3 The raise was unexpected.
3.1 His boss had praised his efforts.

Unit 1

Devi your
We hanc

4.1 Then she had handed him a paycheck.
4*2 The paycheck contained a bonus.
4.3 The bonus was small but worthwhile.
5.1 He had said this to her.
5.2 "There must be some mistake."
5.3 She had just smiled.
5.4 She had assured him otherwise.

6.1 Tony liked the extra money.
6.2 The recognition pleased him even more.
6.3 The recognition acknowledged his efforts.

7.1 Maybe his effort really mattered.
7.2 Maybe his attitude really mattered.
7.3 His job could be more than a meal ticket.

8.1 He had worked extra hard all week.
8.2 He hadn't thought anyone would notice.

Warm-Up Combining 25
Writing Tip Try combining cluster 5 with direct quotation and indi-rect quotation to see which approach you prefer.
What lesson does this simple incident drive home? Develop your thoughts in a follow-up paragraph related to Tony or to yourself.
D Beauty Queen
We often think "more is better." But maybe being too beautiful or too
handsome poses a different set of problems.
LI Tonya was a woman.
1.2 She was stunningly beautiful.
1.3 She knew it.

2.1 Her face had classic proportions,
2.2 It had high cheekbones.
2.3 It had almond-shaped eyes.

3.1 Her jet-black hair glistened.
3.2 Her hair was long.
3.3 Her skin was clear.
3.4 Its clarity was flawless.

4.1 She moved through a crowd,
4.2 AH heads turned.

5.1 She entered a noisy room.
5.2 People whispered in hushed tones.

6.1 Tonya resembled an Egyptian princess.
6.2 She had no close friends,

Unit I
7.1 Everyone else was out having fun.
7.2 The Beauty Queen remained at home.
7.3 She considered her image in the mirror.

8.1 Perhaps other women envied her good looks.
8.2 Perhaps men feared her rejection.
Writing Tip Try using with as a connector in cluster 2. Try adding an Ay ending to flawless in cluster 3.
Is there a two-sided problem here? Develop your own thoughts on the problem of judging people by appearances.
You probably remember "The Tortoise and the Hare." Here's a similar sort of tale with a different message.
1.1 A Fox saw a Crow.
1.2 The Crow was flying.
1.3 Crow had some cheese.
1.4 Her beak held the cheese.

2.1 Crow settled on a branch.
2.2 The branch was on a tree.

3.1 Fox wanted the cheese.
3.2 Fox approached the tree.
3.3 Fox spoke to Crow,

Warm-Up Combining

dding an

rour own
4.1 He complimented Crow.
4.2 She looked remarkably well.
4.3 Her feathers were glossy.
4.4 Her eyes were bright.
5.1 Fox then remarked on Crow's voice.
tilar sort 5.2 It was reported to have a sound.
5.3 The sound was sweet and melodious.
6.1 He asked Crow to sing one song.
6.2 He might call her Queen of the Birds.

7.1 Crow preened her black feathers.
7.2 Crow opened her mouth to caw.
7.3 Crow dropped the cheese.

8.1 Fox snapped up what he wanted.
8.2 That thing was the cheese.
8.3 Fox gave Crow some advice.

Unit I
Writing Tip Clusters 3, 7, and 8 provide contexts for you to use participles as openers (words like wanting, preening, and snapping). In what other ways can you combine these clusters?
imitation A parable is a brief tale that illustrates a lesson. Make up your own parable with whatever moral you want to teach.
3 Parable 2
Sometimes fables have more than one interpretation. Watch for different meanings as you combine sentences and think about Parable 2.
1.1 Sea gulls circle in the dawn.
1.2 The sea gulls are young. place
1.3 The dawn is gray.
1.4 The dawn is drizzly.

2.1 The birds dip in the chill wind. , ,,
2.2 The birds soar in the chill wind. ,
2.3 Their wings are extended.
2.4 Then they swoop to earth together.

3.1 They are just in time for Flying School.
3.2 It tries to teach them about boats. Z5 J
3.3 It tries to teach them about docks.
3.4 It tries to teach them about survival. Whe
4*1 An old bird advises them.
4.2 "Stay close to shore!"
43 "Watch for human trash!"
4.4 "It drifts in with the waves!"
5.1 The gulls flap their wings.
5.2 The flapping is restless.
5.3 Their instructor reminds them.

Warm-Up Combining

ai to use . In what

6.1 The instructor adds this.
6.2 "Gulls must live in flocks!"
6.3 "Gulls must live close to the docks!"

>n. Make

7.1 "Gulls cannot fly high and free!"
7.2 "Flying would be above the sea."
7.3 "The sea is open and rolling."


8.1 The class follows the teacher.
8.2 The class searches for breakfast.
8.3 One bird lags behind.
8.4 One bird remembers a private dream.

Writing Tip As you combine, remember that quotation marks are placed outside of both commas and periods.

Explain the moral of the "Flying School" fable in a follow-up paragraph of interpretation. After making your own meaning, share with others and listen to their paragraphs.
Where do you go to get away from it all? Can you re-create the sensory details of this place so that your reader can know it?
1.1 The sun came off the water.
1.2 The sun glinted in the green eddies.
1.3 The sun glittered in the green eddies.

2.1 Around us were the sounds of insects.
2.2 Around us were the sounds of leaves.
2.3 The sounds were lazy.

30 Umtl

We skipped flat rocks.
3.2 The rocks bruised the water with splashes.
3.3 The splashes were white.

4.1 Then we edged along the river bank.
4.2 The bank was rocky.
4.3 The bank was thick with weeds.
4.4 The weeds were low-growing.

5.1 We ducked under willow branches.
5.2 The branches were overhanging.
5.3 We could smell the pines above.
5.4 We could smell juniper above.

6.1 Twigs crunched underfoot.
6.2 Pinecones crunched underfoot.
6.3 Birds cruised low across the river.

7.1 We savored the afternoon's warmth.
7.2 We savored the afternoon's quiet.
7.3 We hiked to an open grassy ridge.
1-1 A T < III .1 Dl Relig cultu Warm- Up Combining 31 8.1 City noise was far away. 8.2 Diesel stench was far away. 8.3 A memory of final exams was far away. 8.4 This was at least for now. Writing Tip Note that you will need a plural verb as you combine cluster 8. Describe a favorite place that you like to visit, either alone or with someone else. Religious people have made pilgrimages for centuries. Is it possible that our culture has produced a new kind of pilgrim? 1.1 Religious people make pilgrimages. 1.2 The pilgrimages are to confirm their faith. 13 The pilgrimages are to redeem themselves. 2.1 Jews visit the Wailing Wall, in Jerusalem, 2.2 Muslims journey to the holy city of Mecca. 2.3 Catholics try to get to Lourdes, in France. 2.4 Devout Mormons head for Salt Lake City. 3.1 A similar pilgrimage is to Disneyland. 3.2 A similar pilgrimage is to Disney World. 3.3 Millions of Americans undertake it each year. 4.1 These destinations serve as national shrines. 4.2 The shrines are for a secular religion. r Unit 1 5.1 Pilgrims make offerings at the gate. 5.2 Pilgrims enter a city within a city. 2 5.3 It is called the "Magic Kingdom." 2 5.4 The "Magic Kingdom" is self-contained. 2 6.1 Cartoons come to life in this world. 3 6.2 One can actually see Mickey Mouse. 3 6.3 One can see other Disney creations. 3 6.4 One wanders among different "lands." 3 7.1 Pilgrims leave worldly cares behind. 4 7.2 They transcend the constraints of time. 4 7.3 They visit Tomorrowland. ^ 7.4 They visit Main Street, U.S.A. 8.1 They finally leave the shrine. 8.2 They usually take home souvenirs. 8.3 The souvenirs serve as sacred relics. 8.4 The relics remind them of the pilgrimage. In cluster 2, consider using semicolons (;) between each of the four clauses; use and before the last clause. Does entertainment really serve a religious purpose in our society? Look for other examples, and write them up. Z) We all remember our first love—and our first kiss. Can you recall the situation as if it were yesterday? And was it? 1.1 Kevin felt tense. 1.2 Kevin felt unsure of himself. 1.3 Kevin edged closer to his date. 1 A U 1._J _ „:J 1~_1_ Warm-Up Combining 33 2.1 The movie theater was dark. 2.2 Her profile was still visible. 2.3 Her profile was backlighted. 3.1 He stared at her mouth. 3.2 Her mouth was full and inviting. 3.3 He swallowed his hesitation. 3.4 His hesitation was fearful. 4.1 Music began to swell- 4.2 The music was melodramatic. 4.3 The movie's intrigue heightened. 5.1 Kevin could hear his own breathing. 5.2 His breathing was labored. 5.3 Kevin told himself this. 5.4 "It's now or never." Unit I 6.1 There was a pause between them. •; 6.2 The pause was long. -. 6.3 The pause was breathless. -: 6.4 Nothing happened. * 7.1 And then she tilted her head slightly. £ 7.2 The tilt was in his direction. L 7.3 She lifted her chin, i 7.4 She leaned back against his arm, A 7.5 Her eyes were half-closed. c 8.1 Kevin leaned forward. f 8.2 Kevin helped himself to her popcorn. f 8.3 Her popcorn was nearly all gone. [ ( Try using a with connector in sentence 7.5 after you < delete the verb were. < Take it from here with follow-up descriptive writing. Or, if you prefer, write about your own first kiss. O Hispanic Movement The Hispanic Movement has helped shape the direction of American culture today. What is this movement? How does it work? 1.1 The Hispanic Movement results from efforts. 1.2 Mexican-Americans make the efforts. WMl 1.3 The efforts are to assert identity. and 7 1.4 The identity is cultural and political. 2.1 Hispanics now demand a voice in institutions. 2.2 The Hispanics are politically active. Move Warm-Up Combining 35 3.1 Hispanics seek to preserve their heritage. 3.2 Their heritage is a mix of Spanish traditions. 3.3 Their heritage is a mix of Indian traditions. 3.4 The mix is colorful. 4.1 Hispanics want to promote self-awareness. 4.2 They want to promote cooperation. 4.3 The cooperation is in their communities. 4.4 They want to promote ethnic pride. 5.1 One approach to such goals is Hispanic Studies. 5.2 These provide a context for studying history. 5.3 These provide a context for studying literature. 5.4 These provide a context for studying culture. fter you writing. 6.1 A second approach is Hispanic newspapers. 6.2 A second approach is Hispanic magazines. 6.3 These stimulate literary expression. 6.4 These provide a forum for an exchange of views. 7.1 A third approach is political action committees. 7.2 These express Hispanic concerns in elections. 7.3 These work in support of particular candidates. 7.4 These work in support of specific legislation. mencan 8.1 Such efforts enable Hispanics to articulate aims. 8.2 Their aims are social. 8.3 Their aims are political. 8.4 Their aims are economic. 8.5 Such efforts enable Hispanics to achieve them. Writing Tip Try parallel ism in clusters 2, 3, and 4 and then in 5, 6, and 7. See "Parallelism in Sentences" in Appendix B, pages 221-224. fm'tation Describe a specific example of how the Hispanic Movement has affected your community or region for the better. 36 Unit I O Roadside Attraction Advertisers try to capture our attention. But what if their shock techniques pose safety hazards or assault the visual environment? 1.1 Billboards are a new kind of advertising medium. 1.2 The billboards are inflatable. 1.3 The advertising is along roadsides. 2.1 These signs capture one's attention. 2.2 The signs are three-dimensional. 2.3 The capture is dramatic. Try a i you ai Warm-Up Combining ;hniques 3.1 For example, imagine a killer whale. 3.2 The whale is lifelike. 3.3 It appears to leap from a billboard. 4.1 Such a sight is not soon forgotten. 4.2 Its advertiser is not soon forgotten. 4.3 Its advertiser is Marineland. 5.1 Cars are also subjects for such displays. 5.2 Trucks are also subjects for such displays. 5.3 Boats are also subjects for such displays. 6.1 Models of this kind are made from fabric. 6.2 The fabric is woven nylon. 6.3 The fabric has been dipped in vinyl. 6.4 The vinyl is melted. 7.1 This fabric is virtually vandalproof. 7.2 It is extremely tough. 7.3 It has survived bullets. 7.4 It has survived arrows. 8.1 Small holes are no problem. 8.2 A fan keeps the billboard inflated. 8.3 The fan runs continuously. J Tip For subject'verb agreement in cluster 4, change is to are. Try a which connector for cluster 7. invitation Are inflatable billboards here to stay? How would you argue for (or against) them in your community? Unit J O Sassy Sauce writ to cha Thanks to Mexican-American cuisine, many Americans now reach for salsa, the sauce that wakes up your mouth. How about you? 1.1 It's time to enjoy good food. ' 1.2 We Americans gather around. tions i 1.3 We spread on the salsa. 2.1 We fold it into omelettes. 2.2 We put it on sandwiches for lunch. ^) f 2.3 We scoop it up with corn chips after work. aAs^ 3.1 Mexican-American food has become popular. stand; 3.2 Its popularity is throughout the United States. 3.3 Salsa has become the condiment of choice. 3.4 It now surpasses ketchup in total sales. 4.1 Pueblo Indians first created such sauces. 4.2 The Pueblo Indians live in the desert southwest. 4*3 The sauces combined chilies and tomatoes. 5.1 But news of good food travels fast. 5.2 Native Americans eventually shared their secrets. 5.3 The secrets were culinary. 6.1 Today's salsa usually sticks to the basics. 6.2 It may also include chopped onions and garlic. 63 It may also include green peppers and jalapenos. 6.4 It may perhaps even include cilantro. 7.1 Salsa is like its Hispanic and Indian heritage. 7.2 Salsa blends many ingredients into a flavor. 7.3 The flavor is memorable and distinctive. 8.1 Salsa is like Mexican-American culture today. 8.2 Salsa's flavor is difficult to resist. 8.3 Salsa's spiciness is difficult to resist. Warm-Up Combining Writing Tip Try beginning clusters 7 and 8 with the word like. Be sure to change is to are as you combine cluster 8 sentences. reach for Develop a follow-up paragraph linked to the asser-tions in clusters 7 and 8 about Mexican-American culture. "As American as apple pie" was the slogan of yesteryear. So what is today's standard? Burgers and fries, perhaps? 1.1 Slabs of meat hit the hot griddle. 1.2 The meat is grayish-pink. 1.3 The griddle is black. 2.1 Blood pops. 2.2 Blood sputters. 2.3 The patties sizzle in a puddle. 2.4 The puddle is greasy. 3.1 Rows of buns are slathered with mayonnaise. 3.2 The rows are orderly. 3.3 The mayonnaise is rich. 3.4 This is in preparation for burgers. 3.5 The burgers shrink steadily. 4.1 Fries are dumped into a basket. 4.2 The fries are frozen. 4.3 The basket is wire. 4.4 Fries are lowered into oil. 4.5 The lowering is slow. r T 5.1 Their bath foams. 5.2 Their bath crackles. T1_ _:„ l__^l_ :„ Af\f\ J Unit I 6.1 The fries release clouds of steam. 6.2 The fries are thinly sliced. 6.3 The clouds are thick. 6.4 The steam is swirling. 7.1 The patties are eased into place. 7.2 The patties are grainy. 7.3 The patties are rnachine'Stamped. 7.4 The sandwich is quickly wrapped. 7.5 The sandwich is ready for sale. 8.1 The nearby potatoes come out crisp. 8.2 The nearby potatoes come out golden. 8.3 They are dripping with oil. 8.4 The oil is hydrogenated. Notice how adjectives can precede and follow nouns throughout this exercise. Experiment with adjective positioning. invitation Introduce your personal views, positive or negative, on the "House Special" diet. Or describe a favorite food as vividly as you can. 3 Breakfast Routine For some people, breakfast means coffee and a cigarette. What do you think about such a life-style choice? Is it your cup of tea? 1.1 A young woman sits alone. 1.2 She sips from her coffee cup. 1.3 It is chipped along the rim. 2.1 The coffee's taste is acidic. Warm-Up Combining 41 w nouns negative, ividly as /ou think 2.3 There is a brown film. 2.4 It is inside the cup. 3.1 She takes care not to spill the coffee. 3.2 It is rumored to eat holes in clothing, 4.1 This is done without thinking. 4.2 She finds a cigarette. 4.3 She scrapes a match into action. 5.1 It sputters into yellowish flame. 5.2 The sputtering is uneasy. 5.3 The flame wavers. 5.4 The flame licks its way up the matchstick. 6.1 Its death comes from cigarette smoke. 6.2 Its death is sudden. i 1 i 42 Unit I 7.1 A wisp threads upward. 7.2 The wisp is curling. 7.3 It becomes part of the shadows. 8.1 The woman inhales deeply. 8.2 The woman tastes the coffee. 8.3 The woman considers today's problems. 8.4 The woman considers tomorrow's promises. Writing Tip Try connectors like because and which in cluster 3. Try a connector like that in cluster 5. Develop a follow'up paragraph that comments on this breakfast ritual by offering your personal views. Like other Americans, you possess eight miles of sweat glands and will probably contribute to a $2 billion industry this year, 1.1 Human skin is a complex organ. 1.2 It is sometimes called the third kidney. 1.3 It helps us remove wastes through sweating. 2.1 Perspiration flushes away urea. 2.2 It flushes away lactic acid. 2.3 It flushes away toxic metals. 2.4 The metals include lead. 2.5 The metals include mercury. 3.1 This is contrary to popular belief. 3.2 Most sweat is actually odorless. 3.3 Humans cannot "sweat like a pig." Warm-Up Combining 43 r 3. Try a ments on 4.1 Any odor is created by bacteria, 4.2 Odor is associated with perspiration. 4.3 The bacteria are on the skin's surface. 4.4 Pigs do not have bodily sweat glands. 5.1 Pigs are like cats and dogs. 5.2 Pigs have sweat glands only on lips. 5.3 Pigs have sweat glands only on foot pads. 5.4 Pigs roll in the mud to keep cool. 6.1 We humans have over two million sweat glands. 6.2 These enable us to control body temperature. 6.3 We use the same cooling process as horses. 6.4 The process is perspiration. 7.1 Europeans once used scented handkerchiefs. 7.2 This was to deal with unwanted body odors. 7.3 Today's consumers turn to deodorants. 7.4 Today's consumers turn to antiperspirants. and will 8.1 Antiperspirants do present health risks. 8.2 They contain aluminum salts. 8.3 The aluminum salts close up sweat ducts. 8.4 Studies suggest a link with Alzheimer's disease. Writing Tip For sentence variety, try opening clusters 3 and 5 with contrary and like, respectively. Try a colon in cluster 6. Since researchers have found a trend toward higher y\*& of Alzheimer's disease with increased use of antiperspirants, should warning labels be required? Why or why not? Unit I O Name Came How important is a name to a person's identity? Do you agree with Shakespeare that a rose is still a rose by any other name? 1.1 Bill Clinton was elected U.S. President. 1.2 Most Americans welcomed Hillary Clinton. 1.3 A majority did not welcome her preferred name. 1.4 The name is Hillary Rodham Clinton. 2.1 Debate on women's surnames goes back to 1855. 2.2 Lucy Stone was a passionate voice. 2.3 The voice opposed slavery. 2.4 The voice spoke out for women's rights. 3.1 Stone organized a first national convention. 3.2 The convention was on women's rights. 3.3 She also published Woman's Journal 3.4 It was an influential periodical of the day. 4.1 She rejected marriage offers for years. 4.2 She eventually agreed to marry Henry Blackwell. 4.3 Blackwell shared her belief in equal rights. HELLO MY NAME IS 1 i&i£'/ " ' '■'■A^-L-.AMk Warm- Up Combining 45 agree with 5.1 Stone and Blackwell were married in 1855. 5.2 They formally protested the marriage laws. 5.3 The laws gave power and property to men. 5.4 They argued for marriage as a partnership. 5.5 The partnership was permanent and legal. 6.1 Their protest created a storm of controversy. 6.2 Many people were angered by Stone's decision. 6.3 The decision was to keep her own name. 6.4 It symbolized her individuality. 7.1 Stone won the right to the name of Stone. 7.2 She was later refused the right to vote. 7.3 The local registrar refused to recognize it. 8.1 Hillary Clinton's experience suggests this. 8.2 Attitudes toward women's roles die hard. 8.3 Attitudes toward women's surnames die hard. 8.4 The attitudes are traditional. Writing Tip In cluster 7, consider using short clauses for emphasis. In cluster 8, use that as a connector for combining. Use "Name Game" as a springboard for expressing your own views about women's surnames following marriage vows. O Bait and Switch The weather is great, and you're in the mood to kick some tires on car lots. Who knows? Maybe you'll discover a great deal. 1.1 Many car dealers use a sales strategy. 1*2 The sales strategy is cunning. 46 Unit I 2.1 The typical "bait" is a newspaper ad. 2.2 The consumer notices with surprise. 2.3 "This is too good to be true!" 3.1 The consumer may not notice something. 3.2 The car is always "subject to prior sale." 3.3 It often excludes important accessories. 4.1 The "switch" begins at the car lot. 4*2 The consumer inquires about the vehicle. 4.3 The consumer is eager to buy. 4.4 The vehicle was advertised. 5.1 The car's location is often a mystery. 5.2 The car's availability is often a mystery. 5.3 Sales reps usually have "similar cars." 5.4 The reps are happy to show these. 5.5 The reps are happy to talk about these. 6.1 An associate may "search" for the car. 6.2 The car is in question. 6.3 The sales rep gets acquainted. 6.4 The sales rep makes small talk. 7.1 The rep engages the prospect in conversation. 7.2 This is to begin "the switch." 7.3 The conversation is about "car needs." 7.4 The conversation is about "desired features." 8.1 The rep is now armed with information. 8.2 The rep works for "the switch." 8.3 The rep invites consideration of another car. 8.4 This one is "also marked down for today only." Writing Tip Notice how quotation marks are used throughout this exercise to make the read ^ critically aware. Remember to place quotation Warm-Up Combining (nv-ftati >ton Recall a situation in which you negotiated, or tried to negotiate, with a seller on some important purchase. Set the scene clearly, and tell the story.
0 Hurricane Behavior
Hurricanes devastated Florida and the island of Kauai in 1992. How were these storms formed?
LI The tropics supply hot weather.
1.2 The tropics supply warm oceans.
1.3 The tropics supply a thunderstorm.
1.4 These are basic ingredients for a hurricane.

2.1 The hurricane begins as a thunderstorm.
2.2 The thunderstorm is harmless.
2.3 It forms off the coast of west Africa.

3.1 Easterly winds carry it over tropical waters.
3.2 The waters have been heated by the summer sun.
3.3 Rising heat begins to energize the storm.
3.4 Rising heat causes it to grow.

4.1 Lightning bolts flash.
4.2 Winds begin to circulate and howl.
4.3 The storm becomes more powerful.

hout this quotation

5.1 Evaporating water causes heavier rains.
5.2 The rains release heat and energy.
5.3 This, in turn, creates a low-pressure center.
5.4 The center is called the hurricane's "eye."
6.1 The storm forms a circle of wind.

48 Unit I

6.3 The circle swirls counterclockwise.
6.4 The circle is like a spinning top.

7.1 The sea rises under the hurricane's eye.
7.2 The eye is low-pressure.
7.3 This creates a "storm surge."
7.4 The "storm surge" is highly destructive.

8.1 The hurricane moves ashore.
8.2 It pushes a wall of water.
8.3 The wall may reach twenty feet high.
8.4 This is not counting the waves on top.
Writing Tip Try a dash for emphasis when combining cluster 1

Warm-Up Combining
Describe a physical process that you know something about—for example, programming a VCR. Imagine as your audience a person who does not know how to do this task.
Z> Cramming for Exams
Is it possible that American colleges and universities coddle students in basic ways? Combine and make up your own mind!
1.1 Americans often cram for quizzes.
1.2 Americans often cram for exams.
1.3 Students in Europe distribute their studying.
1.4 Distribution tends to integrate learning.

2.1 Patterns of assessment cause such differences.
2.2 The patterns are contrasting.
2.3 The differences are dramatic.
2.4 The differences are in student behavior.

3.1 American schools employ continuous assessment.
3.2 Continuous assessment assumes something.
3.3 Students do not enjoy studying.
3.4 Students must therefore be monitored,
3.5 The monitoring is on a regular basis.

4.1 Instructors set up a schedule of quizzes.
4.2 Instructors set up a schedule of exams.
4.3 Students organize their studying accordingly.
4.4 They often put off their reading.
4.5 They often cram at the last minute.

5.1 This pattern differs from the European model.
5.2 It may test students at year's end.

50 Unit I
6.1 European students understand something.
6.2 A process of cramming is useless.
6.3 They must organize their own time.
6.4 They must discipline themselves to study.

7.1 Students have one chance to pass an exam.
7.2 They take the exam seriously.
7.3 So much of their future rides on its results.

8.1 The American system rewards students for cramming.
8.2 The European model rewards genuine learning.
Writing Tip Use a contrast connector (such as but, however, whereas, although, or ivhile) in clusters 1 and 8. Notice that this paragraph is built on the principle of contrast.
invitation (1) Develop a paragraph contrasting your study hab¬its in high school and college, or (2) explain why American colleges should (or should not) adopt the European model.
Z) A Man with Heart
Medicine involves human stories, often in life-and-death situations. Con-sider, for example, the first heart surgery.
1.1 Dr. Dan Williams was put to the test in 1893.
1.2 This was ten years after getting his medical degree.
1.3 This was two years after founding Provident Hospital.
1.4 Provident was the nation's first interracial facility.
2.1 A young black man had been stabbed in a bar fight. i "> Williams was called upon to examine the chest wound.

Warm- Up Combining 51

r, whereas, is built on
study nab-ges should

)ns. Con-

3.1 The man became pale.
3.2 The man developed a sharp cough.
3.3 Williams suspected internal bleeding.
3.4 The bleeding could be from a heart wound.

4.1 Cold packs was the usual treatment in such cases.
4.2 A painkiller was the usual treatment in such cases.
4.3 Rest was the usual treatment in such cases.
4.4 The patient almost always died.


5.1 Williams hoped to save the man's life.
5.2 Williams made his incision into the man's chest.
5.3 He discovered a bleeding blood vessel.

Unit J
6.1 Even more serious was the tear in the pericardium.
6.2 The pericardium is the sac surrounding the heart.
6.3 The pericardium fluttered at 130 times per minute.

7.1 Williams cleaned the wound with a saline solution.
7.2 Williams sewed the edges together as best he could.
7.3 Williams then closed the outer incision.

8.1 The black man survived his historic operation.
8.2 The operation was the first heart surgery ever.
8.3 Dan Williams later found himself a very famous man.
8.4 Dan Williams was the black surgeon with heart.
Writing Tip Change was to were as you combine cluster 4. For sen¬tence variety, try opening cluster 5 with hoping. Try dashes for emphasis in cluster 8.
/notation The founding of the interracial hospital by Williams led to the creation of 40 similar facilities in 20 states. If Williams did this then, what seems important for you to do now7.


For sen-iphasis in
Williams s did this

".' I

'■ •■■l«I^I*p\'V*l-r**r'
} * / i >')t)i).iiJi>«M)''v> )


56 Unit 2

Have you ever watched someone learning how to drive—or been through that process yourself/ Can you recall your frustration with the strange commands and graphics of a new computer? Or the difficulty of learning to speak a second language?
Each o{ these examples reminds us that new learning often takes tremen¬dous energy. Such events stand out in our minds because we had such difficulty with them. And yet soon after we learn a complex set of habits, we become virtually unaware of separate actions—like starting the car, shifting, braking, signaling to change lanes, or parallel parking. What was once difficult is now easy. Somehow, we're on "automatic pilot."
This same transformation—from difficult to easy, from conscious atten-tion to automatic behavior—also happens when people extend their writing skills. Understanding how you learn writing will help you to be both patient and efficient as you practice sentence combining, respond to writing invita¬tions, and work with others in writing groups.

senten your b
babbli: phrase someo traine< As: native confer guage and pi TRAINING YOUR AUTOMATIC PILOT Strange as it may seem, everyone has many automatic pilots, each trained to take over when its task comes up. in addition, everyone has pilots-in-training. For example, your pilot for using a knife and fork may be highly skilled, while the one for using chopsticks may be a bit uncertain, needing more experience with Asian foods. Of course, the reverse may also be true. Similarly, you may have a well-trained pilot for driving the baseline and shooting jump shots but a lousy one for returning a tennis ball. The problem is not that your tennis pilot is asleep or on vacation; rather, this pilot simply needs more practice. Thousands of dribbles and baseline jumpers have put your basketball pilot on "automatic" when you hit the court. j Another well-trained pilot—regardless of your eating utensils or your j basketball prowess—is the one that governs talk in your native language. ! Think about the countless utterances you must have heard from parents, siblings, friends, and the TV set when you were an infant and a small child. You were awash in language. It's amazing but true: your language pilot was a phenomenally quick learner. At six months, you automatically made the sounds of your native language, not some other tongue. At nine months to a year, you used single words and pointed to engage others in conversations. At 18 months, you were making sentences. At 24 months, you combined ideas mentally and You a frees yt on yoi you're audien But easy. \ practic results Wh notice do yoi modifu those Apper efforts A si especi portfo excite health senter tion. ! Intermediate Combining 57 i through e strange earning to s tremen-had such of habits, the car, J(/hat was yus atten-ir writing ;h patient ig invita- sentence patterns and simple ways of combining. That self-programming of your brain computer has not been matched by today's supercomputers! Was all of this easy? No. Adults would walk by your crib and hear you babbling to yourself—gooing and cooing at first, then saying words or phrases or rhymes. You were doing homework all the time, even when someone laid you down for nap. It was this virtually nonstop practice that trained your language pilot so quickly and thoroughly. As a consequence, you don't have to think about how to talk in your native tongue. You simply do it. What you think about, probably, is content—making your meanings come across. Almost instantly, your Ian-guage pilot takes over, expressing your ideas in the unique sounds, rhythms, and patterns you have mastered. h trained pilots-in-be highly , needing ) be true. eline and i problem ot simply have put i or your anguage. parents, all child. lly quick ur native »ed single vths, you tally and A PILOT FOR WRITING You can see from the points above why an automatic pilot is so important; it frees your mind to do other things. Just as a pilot for talking allows you to focus on your message, so a pilot for writing frees you to think about content (what you're writing about), organization (how your message is structured), and audience (what they already know and need to know). But as we noted earlier, training a pilot to go on automatic isn't always easy. It not only takes time and patience but also requires attention and practice. With sentence combining, daily practice leads to the quickest results in your own writing. What sort of attention is important? As you combine ideas, begin to notice sentence openers. Do you always open sentences in the same way—or do you vary them occasionally? Also, be alert to your routines for adding modifiers and using connectors. How does your usual approach compare with those of other students? Finally, begin to use terms and concepts from Appendix A and Appendix B as you look at your own writing and the efforts of your workshop partners. Are you fully aware of your options? A second kind of attention comes from your reading. Do you ever reread especially interesting sentences or copy them into your SC notebook (or portfolio) ? What matters is that the content (or form) of certain sentences excites you. Perhaps a sentence eloquently voices the need for prenatal health care or expresses ethnic pride. Whatever the topic, self-selected sentences like these help your writing pilot train itself in sentence construe-tion. Such copied-down patterns, soon internalized, will emerge automat- 58 Unit 2 A basic aim of combining and copying sentences is to help you acquire an automatic pilot for sentence construction. When you make written sen¬tences automatically, you free up energy and cognitive space for planning, among other things. As a result, writing becomes easier as well as more fun. Think back to our driving analogy, and relate it to writing. When driving becomes automatic, you can concentrate on strategies (like mentally plan¬ning your route for several errands) rather than details (like shifting gears). Equally important, your automatic pilot frees you to enjoy the pleasure of trees coming into bloom or the sounds of a favorite FM station. The same thing is true with writing. Increased ease with sentences frees you to think strategically about your writing. For one thing, you can create a mental map to explore a topic. For another, you can organize the beginning, middle, and end of your trip. And finally, an automatic pilot helps you get back on the main road after you've encountered unexpected detours. D Vietnam Veterans Memorial Dedicated in 1982, the Vietnam Veterans Memorial is the most visited site in Washington, D.C. What is the attraction? 1.1 The Memorial lies in Constitution Gardens. 1.2 The Memorial is a wide V-shaped wall. 2.1 The wall is made of black granite. 2.2 The wall seems to rise from the earth. 2.3 The wall seems to recede into it. 3.1 Entering the Memorial is a moving experience. 3.2 The wall is inscribed with over 58,000 names. 3.3 Each refers to an American man or woman. 3.4 The man or woman was lost in Vietnam. 4.1 One sees line after line of American names. 4.2 These stretch for 250 feet in two directions. 4.3 The enormity of the nation's loss becomes clear. 5.1 The averaee aee was nineteen. Writi tors su / black £ Memoi Intermediate Combining 59 acquire an ritten sen-■ planning, i more fun. ten driving itally plan¬ing gears). pleasure of ences frees can create ganize the natic pilot inexpected /isited site 5.3 Marines suffered a casualty rate of 24 percent. 5.4 This was for soldiers killed or wounded. 6.1 The wall is a place of quiet commemoration. 6.2 People come to acknowledge sacrifice here. 6.3 People come to remember a young face here. 6.4 People come to express private grief here. 7.1 And it would not exist except for one man. 7.2 This was a Vietnam veteran named Jan Scruggs. 7.3 He saw half of his company killed or wounded. 7.4 He barely escaped with his life. 8.1 Scruggs wanted to remember his comrades. 8.2 He wanted the nation to honor their commitment. 8.3 The nation had been divided over the Vietnam War. 8.4 The division had been bitter. 9.1 In 1979 he became obsessed with the project. 9.2 He began work to establish a Memorial Fund. 9.3 He began work to secure congressional approval. 9.4 The approval was for the concept of a memorial. 10.1 President Carter signed a bill in July 1980. 10.2 The bill authorized the Memorial. 10.3 The bill provided a site for it. 10.4 Scruggs's campaign moved into high gear. 10.5 The campaign was to raise private funds. Writing Tip Look for opportunities to use (but not overuse) connec-tors such as who, which, and that in this exercise. Great controversy surrounded the use of polished black granite, which mirrors trees, sky, earth, and the people who visit the Memorial. Why was black probably a good choice? 60 Unit 2 O Gambling Fever Before 1989, just two states—Nevada and New Jersey—had casino gam-bling. Now 11 more states have some form of legalized gambling. Why? 1.1 State budgets are tight. 1.2 Taxpayers are in open revolt. 1.3 Legalized gambling generates huge profits. 1.4 Profits can support government services. 2.1 Gross revenues in 1991 exceeded $26 billion. 2.2 This compares with $5 billion from receipts. 2.3 The receipts are in the film industry. 3.1 Thirty-two states have lotteries. 3.2 The lotteries are operated by the government. 3.3 The lotteries siphon about $17 billion. 3.4 This is used to support various programs. 3.5 The programs often include education. 4. 4. 4. 4. 5, 5. 5. 5. 6, 6. 6. 7. 7. 7. 7. 7. 8. 8. 8. 8. 9. 9. 9. 9. 10. 10. 10. 10. 10. Writin Intermediate Combining 61 4.1 Over 50 Indian tribes also run casinos. 4.2 Over 50 Indian tribes also run bingo games. 4.3 These cannot be regulated by the states. 4.4 This is because of a Supreme Court ruling. 5.1 Gambling on reservations grossed $6 billion. 5.2 This amount was split with 17 states in 1991. 5.3 Some cities may now give land to Indian tribes. 5.4 This is in exchange for future gambling revenues. 6.1 Yet gambling raises serious moral questions. 6.2 Lawmakers rarely consider moral questions. 6.3 They face problems with government budgets. 7.1 Gambling exploits people from the inner cities. 7.2 The gambling is state-sponsored. 7.3 These people are vulnerable to messages. 7.4 The messages are slick and tantalizing. 7.5 The messages promise a better life. 8.1 Consider an example. 8.2 The example is an Illinois lottery billboard. 8.3 The billboard is in a Chicago ghetto. 8.4 "This Could Be Your Ticket Out." 9.1 Lottery sales soar in poor neighborhoods. 9.2 People are often hungry and desperate. 9.3 They are ill-equipped to understand the odds. 9.4 The odds underlie their participation. 10.1 Gambling may provide entertainment for many. 10.2 The entertainment is harmless. 10.3 It may also undermine our value system. 10.4 It promotes a dream of "something for nothing." 10.5 It promotes a dream of "wealth without work." Writing Tip In cluster 5, consider a semicolon + therefore for sen- ir 62 Unit 2 /notation Does legalized gambling represent government's cyn¬ical approach for taxing the poor? Or is it a good way to raise extra revenue? Take a stand, and express your viewpoint. Z> Pumped Up
You've seen muscle magazines on the newsstands—ones that reach a
readership of 7 million Americans who want to be "pumped up."
1.1 No one wants to be a 97-pound weakling.
1.2 This is especially true for young American men.
1.3 They have seen Rambo and Terminator films.
1.4 These present "macho" images of strength.

2.1 Adolescents are inspired by images from TV.
2.2 Adolescents are inspired by muscle magazines.
2.3 Adolescents have created a bodybuilding subculture,
2.4 It often uses steroids to achieve results.

3.1 The black market for steroids is enormous.
3.2 It supplies 1 million users with drugs.
3.3 Half of this number are teenagers.
3.4 It grosses at least $400 million annually.
4.1 Steroids can stunt a person's growth. anc)
4.2 Steroids may lead to liver problems. you < 4.3 Steroids may lead to kidney problems. 4.4 Most men start using "juice" before age 16. 4.5 Some start as early as age 10. 5.1 Overdoses of growth hormone can cause acromegaly. terra 5.2 Acromegaly is called "Frankenstein's Syndrome." that Intermediate Combining 63 nt's cyn-revenue? 5.4 This condition distorts hands and feet. 5.5 This condition eventually leads to death. 6.1 Equally serious are psychological mood swings. 6.2 Cycles of steroid use create the mood swings. 7.1 Steroid users often experience depressions. 7.2 They are not using the drugs. 7.3 This pattern typically leads to increased use. reach 8.1 "Juicers" may have feelings of euphoria. 8.2 The euphoria is invincible. 8.3 Irritability often accompanies the "pump." 8.4 An urge to fight often accompanies the "pump." 9.1 Such aggression can lead to vandalism. 9.2 Such aggression can lead to assaults. 9.3 Such aggression can lead even to murder. 9.4 It is sometimes fueled by delusions. 9.5 It is sometimes fueled by paranoia. 10.1 Over 80 percent of teenagers believe something. 10.2 Steroids are completely harmless. 10.3 Half this number would continue their use. 10.4 This was even if they were convinced otherwise. Writing Tip For sentence variety, try opening cluster 2 with inspired and cluster 8 with while. Also, be sure to check subject^verb agreement as you combine cluster 8. Imitation No federal money has been spent studying the long-term health effects of steroids. How would you convince federal officials that the study of steroids should become a priority? 64 Unit 2 O Nuclear Waste The partial meltdown at Three Mile Island in 1979 and the disaster of | Chernobyl in 1986 alerted U.S. citizens to the dangers of the nuclear age. ! Here's yet another threat. j 1.1 Over 25 nations have nuclear power plants. 1.2 The nations include the United States. 1.3 The plants have produced tons of waste. 1.4 The waste is radioactive. 2.1 This waste poses a threat to civilization. 2.2 This waste poses a threat to the environment. 2.3 The threat is extraordinarily serious. 2.4 Its radiation is so lethal. 2.5 Its radiation is so long-lasting. 3.1 Nuclear waste eventually becomes harmless. 3.2 The process can take 10,000 years to achieve. 4.1 Radioactive wastes cannot be burned. 4.2 Radioactive wastes cannot be discarded. 4.3 Ways must be found to contain them. conne 4.4 The containment must be permanent. quentl 5.1 Such wastes are now stored in facilities. 5.2 The facilities are temporary. i 5.3 These include "ponds" at power plants. Africa 5.4 These include underground steel tanks. pover 5.5 The tanks are on selected federal lands. 6.1 About 50,000 metric tons will accumulate. 6.2 The accumulation is high-level wastes. 6.3 The wastes will be mostly in solid form. 6.4 This will be in the United States alone. 6.5 This will be by the year 2000. j Do Y£ I suppo 7.1 High-level waste generates great heat. ] 7.2 It emits deadly forms of radiation. Intermediate Combining 65 isaster of :lear age. 8.1 Shielding can be provided by lead. 8.2 Shielding can be provided by concrete. 83 Shielding can be provided by steel. 8.4 Shielding can be provided by water. 8.5 The shielding is temporary. 9.1 Underground burial presents problems. 9.2 The problems are technical. 9.3 The rock must not melt from intense heat. 9.4 The rock surrounds the radioactive waste. 9.5 The waste generates intense heat. 10.1 Another hazard is groundwater. 10.2 Water might first leak into a burial site. 10.3 It might cause canisters to leak. 10.4 It might then carry radiation into aquifers. 10.5 The aquifers are underground. In clusters 2, 4, and 7, try using different cause-and^effect connectors—words and phrases such as because, so, since, therefore, conse¬quently, and as a result. invitation Some Third World countries in Latin America and Africa have agreed to store hazardous wastes because of their desperate poverty. Should our country export its wastes elsewhere? Z> Magical Names
Do you have a nickname or know someone who does? Where do you suppose the idea of nicknames came from?
1.1 We humans have spliced genes.
1.2 We humans have split the atom.

66 Unit.2

We feel uneasy with names like cancer.
2.2 We feel uneasy with names like death.
2.3 We therefore resort to euphemisms.
2.4 We therefore resort to substitutes.

3.1 We take offense at certain ethnic names.
3.2 We also take pride in other labels.
3.3 The labels change from time to time.


4.1 We invoke the names of supernatural beings.
4*2 The invocation depends on our religion.
4.3 The invocation is through prayers.
4.4 We utter oaths to damn our enemies.

5.1 Such modern examples recall an earlier time.
5.2 A name was a real part of one's identity then.
5.3 It was not just an identifying label.

6.1 A new son or daughter was born.
6.2 The child's name had to be kept secret.
6.3 A stranger might hear the name.
6.4 A stranger might use it to bewitch the child.

7.1 Nicknames grew from this widespread custom.
7.2 The custom was cnnrealinp nnc's rnip nam^

I Were expeci
In the such v

Intermediate Combining 67
8.1 Our ancestors believed something.
8.2 Names invoked spirits.
8.3 The spirits were both good and bad.
8.4 Great care was exercised in name selection.

9.1 Christians often used the Bible as a guide.
9.2 Christians would open the book randomly.
9.3 Christians would glance down.
9.4 Christians would choose the first name.
9.5 The name was appropriate to the child's sex.

10.1 Superstitions about names persist today.
10.2 Parents often name children after leaders.
10.3 Parents often name children after entertainers,
10.4 Parents avoid the names of heinous criminals.
Writing Tip Try a semicolon + however in cluster 1. Try a because connector as an opener for clusters 2 and 8.
What do you know about the history of your name? Were you named after someone? Does your name carry certain family expectations? Why do you like (or dislike) your name?
Z) Man's World
In the United States today, women assert influence in all professions—but such was not always the case. Read on.
1.1 Women were often second-class citizens.
1.2 This was during the nineteenth century.
1.3 Men controlled the positions of power.

2.1 Elizabeth Blackwell was a successful teacher.
2.2 She studied on her own to gain background.
2.3 The harkprnund would sunnnrr Kpr annli^aHon

68 Unit 2
3.1 Eleven schools rejected her application.
3.2 Geneva Medical College finally accepted her.
3.3 She graduated from there in 1849.
3.4 This was after much debate among the faculty.

4.1 The Boston Medical Journal made comments.
4.2 The comments were negative and critical.
4.3 The comments followed her graduation.
4.4 It said that she had overstepped her bounds.
4.5 These were set "by the order of nature."
4.6 These were set "by the common consent of the world."

5.1 She was rejected by all American hospitals.
5.2 Ms. Blackwell was forced to travel abroad.
5.3 The travel was to complete her medical work.

6.1 She returned to New York in 1851.
6.2 She had trouble finding office space.
6.3 No one would rent to a female physician.

7.1 Finally, she was forced to buy her own house.
7.2 She set up a small practice there.
7.3 The practice was successful.

8.1 By 1857 her practice had expanded.
8.2 It became the New York Infirmary for Women & Children.
8.3 It was the first hospital to be staffed by women.
8.4 It was one that offered medical internships.
8.5 The internships were for women students.

9.1 The struggle had been difficult.
9.2 Elizabeth Blackwell changed a man's world.
9.3 The change was for the better.
Writing Tip For sentence variety, consider rejected as a sentence ODener for cluster 5. Exoeriment with different contrast connectors for

Intermediate Combining 69
Develop a profile of a woman who has made a break¬through in law, education, the arts, broadcasting, sports, entertainment, or another profession.
O Ladies' Man
Perhaps you've known a person like Alex, one who seems totally self-
absorbed. Does Alex have a female counterpart?
LI Alex is a ladies1 man.
1.2 He is smooth-talking.
1.3 He likes to wear aloha shirts.
1.4 The aloha shirts are open-collared.
1.5 He likes to wear thick gold chains.

2.1 He has a smile.
2.2 His smile is well practiced.
2.3 He has eyes.
2.4 His eyes are heavy-lidded.
2.5 His eyes are seductive.

3.1 His manner is suave.
3.2 His chatter is glib.
3.3 His grooming is impeccable.

4.1 He wears sexy jeans.
4.2 The jeans fit tightly.
4.3 He moves with grace.
4.4 His movement is suggestive.
4.5 His grace is undulating.

5.1 A mane of hair gives him a look.
5.2 The mane is thick.
5.3 The hair is black and shaggy.

70 Unit 2
6.1 He hangs out at the health club.
6.2 He swaggers among the weight machines.
6.3 He eyes himself in the mirrors.
6.4 The mirrors are full-length.
6.5 He flirts with ladies in the aerobics class.

7.1 Alex may have problems.
7.2 The problems are psychological.
7.3 Timidity is not among them.
7.4 Introversion is not among them.

8.1 At noon he heads for work.
8.2 This is after sculpting his hair.
8.3 Sculpting is with a blow dryer.
8.4 His work is at a car dealership.
8.5 He trolls for unwary customers.
Writing Tip Make sure to check verb tense (changing is to are) as you combine sentences 7.3 and 7.4.
Create another character sketch, with details like those in "Ladies' Man." Consider linking that sketch to this one.
O Championship Play-off
The final moments of a championship game can provide a dramatic back-drop for narration. Watch how the action unfolds here.
1.1 Angie took a deep breath.
1.2 She approached the foul line.
1.3 Her teammates were gathered there.
1.4 They were urging her to relax.
2.1 She bounced the ball twice.

Intermediate Combining 71


) as you
ails like

2.3 She tried to concentrate on the basket.
2.4 She tried to ignore the deficit.
2.5 The deficit was two points.
2.6 There was only a minute to play.

3.1 Then she went into a slight crouch.
3.2 She drew the ball inward and up.
3.3 She lofted it toward the glass.

ic back-

4.1 It struck the front rim.
4.2 It bounced high.
4.3 The players went up for the rebound.
4.4 The players were a tangle of arms.
4.5 The players were a tangle of elbows.

5.1 Marie came down with it.
5.2 She wheeled toward the outside.
5.3 She flicked it back to Angie.
5.4 Angie had dropped into the key.

6.1 The crowd was on its feet.

72 Unit 2

7.1 Angie drove past a defender.
7.2 Her body angled toward the baseline.
7.3 She shoveled a pass to Marie.
7.4 Marie had moved into the clear.

8.1 Marie faked upward.
8.2 This forced her opponent to jump.
8.3 Marie flicked the ball above fingertips.
8.4 The fingertips were outstretched.
8.5 The fingertips were desperate.

9.1 Its spin rippled the net.
9.2 Its spin was high and soft.
9.3 Its spin tied the score at 78.

10.1 The crowd became one giant voice.
10.2 It was an expanding balloon of sound.
Writing Tip Clusters 4 and 10 provide opportunities for you to make appositives after the words players and voice.
Continue the narrative action of the championship play-off, describing what happens in the next 42 seconds.
O Ancient Struggle

3. 3. 3, 3.
4. 4. 4. 4. 4.
5. 5. 5.
6. 6. 6.
7. 7. 7.
8. 8. 8.. 8.'

Both humans and animals hunt to stay alive. What is your stand on hunting or fishing for sport—that is, for entertainment?
1.1 The fisherman waded dut into the stream.
1.2 The stream was cold and fast-flowing.
1.3 The fisherman picked his way over rocks.
1.4 The rocks were slippery.

2.1 He used his fly rod as a wand.
2.2 He made great singing loops with his line.


your viev

Intermediate Combining 73

to make

3.1 The current took his fly.
3.2 It disappeared in the river's shadows.
3.3 Its disappearance was sudden.
3.4 The shadows were green.

4.1 A trout came out of the water.
4.2 It was fighting to shake the hook.
4.3 The hook had been concealed in its supper.
4.4 It then headed for safety downstream.
4.5 It was making a run for it.

5.1 The fisherman worked it closer.
5.2 The fish surfaced again in the sunlight.
5.3 It thrashed its tail across the water.
5.4 It danced its tail across the water.

6.1 It headed off" a third time.
6.2 It was still full of fight.
6.3 The fisherman bent down with his net.

7.1 It had been a fierce struggle.
7.2 It had been a noble struggle.
7.3 The fisherman knew his craft.
7.4 The fishman knew his equipment.

8.1 He reached down with care.
8.2 He released the barbless hook.
8.3 He admired the trout's wildness.
8.4 His wildness was sleek and silvery.
8.5 He released it back into the stream.


Writing Tip Try using participial phrases—with verb forms that end in -ing—to show the interplay of fisherman and fish.
(/fft/vUv/v/f Use "Ancient Struggle" as an opener to introduce
your views on hunting and fishing as recreational activities.

74 Unit 2
D Air Pollution
Air quality is a major problem in many cities. What specific ideas do you have to reduce the pollution of our air?
LI Air quality has reached a point of crisis.
1.2 This is in many American cities.
1.3 It now affects human health.
1.4 The effects are adverse.

2.1 Specialists predict something.
2.2 The specialists study the atmosphere.
2.3 The specialists study the environment.
2.4 Inaction will result in disaster.

3.1 Many will die because of "inversions."
3.2 The inversions trap carbon monoxide.
3.3 The inversions trap filthy air.
3.4 The trap is near the ground.

Intermediate Combining 75

do you

4.1 Legislators must pass laws.
4.2 The laws carry penalties for polluters.
4.3 The penalties are stiff.

5.1 Industries must comply with measures.
5.2 The measures are preventive.
5.3 Industries must decrease their discharge.
5.4 The discharge is atmospheric emissions.


6.1 Auto manufacturers must step up research.
6.2 The research is on engines.
6.3 The engines are clean-burning.
6.4 The engines are fuel-efficient.
6.5 The research is on pollution control.

7.1 Education efforts must be undertaken.
7.2 This is to promote conservation among citizens.
7.3 The citizens waste electric power.
7.4 The citizens burn trash illegally.
7.5 The citizens ignore public transportation.
7.6 The citizens buy oversized automobiles.

8.1 Such an approach must begin now.
8.2 The approach is coordinated.
8.3 The approach depends on public awareness.
8.4 Tomorrow is too late.
Writing Tip In cluster 2, use that as a connector. In cluster 7, check punctuation for items in a series.
Should gas be rationed? Should cities be closed to private cars? Should people who use public transportation get tax breaks? Should we build bicycle paths? Write up your idea.

Unit 2
D Summer Rain
The afternoon is hot and sticky, a little like a steam bath. Maybe we need a summer rain to wash the air and refresh the spirit.
1.1 A wind begins building in the west.
1.2 The wind is warm and gusty.
1.3 The trees respond like dancers.
1.4 They bend and sway across the sky.

2.1 Above the mountains are clouds.
2.2 The clouds are fat and grayish.

3, 3. 3.
4. 4. 4. 4.

5. 5..
6: 6.; 6.:
6.< 7.1 7.2 7.3 8.1 8.2 8.3 Writin phrase li dry /* sou, Intermediate Combining 77 2.3 The clouds scud across the horizon. 2.4 They rub their underbellies on the peaks. 3.1 The sky darkens to a soft purple. 3.2 The purple is the color of plums. 3.3 The plums are now ripening in the trees. 4.1 A sudden hush gentles the wind. 4.2 The trees suddenly go still. 4.3 Their branches are outstretched. 4.4 Their branches are awaiting the next act. 5.1 The sky now looks more ominous. 5.2 The sky now looks more threatening. 5.3 It looks like a bruise. 5.4 The bruise is large and painful. 6.1 A child looks up from her sidewalk play. 6.2 She stares at trees. 6.3 The trees no longer whisper. 6.4 The trees no longer dance. 7.1 And then she feels the first raindrops. 7.2 They are light and wet on her arm. 7.3 They are like unsure teardrops. 8.1 She lifts her small face. 8.2 She closes her eyes. 8.3 She hears the rain come like a wave. Writing Tip In cluster 3, try making an appositive—a renaming phrase like this. Describe how the rain looks—hitting the sidewalk, dry soil, mud puddles—as well as how it sounds and smells. 78 Unit 2 D Japanese Business Although Japan lost World War II, it ranks as a leading economic power today. How did Japanese business achieve such success? 1.1 Japanese society encourages trust. 1.2 It also encourages cooperation. 1.3 This allows enterprises to flourish. 1.4 The enterprises are large corporations. 2.1 Japanese companies emphasize planning. 2.2 The planning is long'range. 2.3 Japanese companies emphasize consensus. 2.4 The consensus is in decision making. 3.1 Such companies are based on loyalties. 3.2 The loyalties are strong. 3.3 The loyalties are mutual. 3.4 Loyalties are between workers and employers. 4.1 Workers share in company profits. 4.2 They receive biannual bonuses. 4.3 This is when times are good. 5.1 They receive pay cuts. 5.2 They still keep their jobs. 5.3 This is when times are bad. 6.1 Promotions come slowly in Japanese firms. j 6.2 Executives make commitments. | 6.3 The commitments are for a lifetime. j 6.4 Executives do not switch companies. 7.1 Specialization is a foreign concept. 7.2 Company leaders move among departments. 7.3 This is to understand the operations of the company. 7.4 Their understanding is complete. | Intermediate Combining 79 nic power 8.1 Cooperation characterizes Japanese business. 8.2 Sacrifice characterizes Japanese business. 8.3 Teamwork characterizes Japanese business. 8.4 Japan has enjoyed dynamic growth since 1950. Mating Tip Try connectors such as because, so, therefore, and conse-quently in clusters 6, 7, and 8. See "Parallelism in Sentences" in Appendix B, pages 221*224- What change, if any, should occur in American business practice? Link your writing to the "Japanese Business" paragraph. 0 Final Exam Has an instructor ever thrown you a curve in a final exam? Did you panic? Recall an occasion when the exam really surprised you. LI Kathy slouched at her desk. 1.2 She chewed a fingernail nervously, 1.3 She stared at the final exam. 1.4 The exam was for her sociology course. 2.1 She could picture the first day of the course. 2.2 The instructor had introduced herself. 2.3 The instructor had explained the syllabus. 2.4 The syllabus called for independent thinking. 2.5 The syllabus called for creative thinking. 3.1 Kathy had read such statements before. 3.2 The statements were high-minded. 3.3 She knew from experience what really counted. 3.4 What counted were correct margins on papers. 3.5 What counted were noncontroversial opinions. 3.6 What counted were rieht answers on exams. 80 Unit 2 4.1 She looked up now. 4.2 She saw her instructor move down the aisle. 4.3 Her movements were smooth. 4.4 Her suit jacket was off. 4.5 Her sleeves were rolled up. 5.1 Kathy swallowed the dryness in her mouth. 5.2 The dryness was unnatural. 5.3 She glanced back at the exam. 5.4 Its words swam before her eyes. 5.5 Their swimming was dizzy. 6.1 A buzzer sounded down the hall. 6.2 The buzzer was a ten-minute warning. 6.3 She felt her insides tremble. 6.4 Her paper was still blank. 7.1 She had attended every class. 7.2 She had taken notes. 7.3 The notes were meticulous. 7.4 She had done all the assignments. 7.5 She had reviewed for the exam. 7.6 Her review was thorough. 8.1 But the exam's directions had baffled her. 8.2 The directions were unusually demanding. 8.3 "Ask a significant question about sociology." 8.4 "Answer it with what you have learned." Writing Tip In clusters 3 and 8, try using a colon. Using this paragraph as your opener, develop your case either for or against such open-ended testing in colleges. Intermediate Combining 81 O First Settlers According to the 1990 census, there were 20.1 million Hispanic-Americans in the United States, most of whom were Mexican-Americans. 1.1 History books emphasize English settlements. 1.2 The settlements were at Jamestown in 1607. 1.3 The settlements were at Plymouth in 1620. 1.4 These were part of a major immigration pattern. 2.1 But such emphasis may overlook a basic fact. 2.2 Three generations of Mexicans had put down roots. 2.3 Their roots were in the desert southwest. 2.4 The English were still anchoring their ships. 3.1 America was still far from being a republic. 3.2 A rich culture had been created by Mexicans. 3.3 They were the descendants of Toltecs. 3.4 They were the descendants of Aztecs. 3.5 They were the descendants of Mayans. 3.6 They were the descendants of Spanish soldiers. 82 Unit 2 4.1 Mexicans were like the American Indian tribes. 4.2 Mexicans welcomed Anglo visitations at first. 4.3 Mexicans later came to regret their decision. 4.4 Anglo intentions became increasingly clear. 5.1 The Mexican-American War ended in 1848. 5.2 Mexicans found themselves second-class citizens. 5.3 They lived in a foreign land. 5.4 The foreign land had once belonged to them. 6.1 The United States paid $15 million. 6.2 It received California in exchange. 6.3 It received Texas in exchange. 6.4 It received Colorado in exchange. 6.5 It received Arizona in exchange. 6.6 It received parts of Utah in exchange. 6.7 It received parts of Nevada in exchange. 7.1 Many Mexican-Americans lost land. 7.2 Their families had owned the land for centuries. 7.3 They did not understand the tax system. 7.4 They failed to file title claims. 8.1 Others were cheated by deed keepers. 8.2 The deed keepers were unscrupulous. 8.3 The deed keepers stole titles. 8.4 The deed keepers failed to record them. Writing Tip Try a dash + that as you combine cluster 2. Use series punctuation in clusters 3 and 6. For sentence variety, try opening cluster 4 with like, How important is it for "white" America to know the history of Mexican-Americans? Make your case in follow-up writing. iKwtafa For ma freedon 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5. 5. 5, 6. 6. 6. 6. Intermediate Combining 83 O Motorcycle Pack for many of us, motorcycles hold special appeal. They suggest a life of freedom—maybe even danger—out on the open road. Listen. 1.1 We could hear them coming. 1.2 They were way off in the distance. 1.3 They were winding down the road. 1.4 The road was through the mountains. 1.5 The road was east of town. 2.1 The sound made us think of power saws. 2.2 It was deeper. 2.3 It was louder. 2.4 It was more sustained. 3.1 The first rider broke into view. 3.2 He was at the edge of town. 3.3 The brush is thick there. 3.4 The brush is full of shadows there. 4.1 The others rapped their pipes. 4.2 The others swarmed behind him. 4.3 The others brought a wave of noise. 4.4 The noise rumbled. Jse series cluster 4 5.1 The leader geared down at the grocery store. 5.2 The leader set a pace. 5.3 The pace was swaggering. 5.4 The pace was through the middle of town. 5.5 He did not glance to the side. 5.6 He did not acknowledge the people. 5.7 The people watched from the sidewalk. enow the ing. 6.1 He personified seriousness. 6.2 He personified bravado. 6.3 His seriousness was leather. 6.4 His bravado was chrome. 84 Unit 2 7.1 The others stared at his back. 7.2 The others tried their best to imitate him. 8.1 He lifted a fist. 8.2 The fist was gloved in black. 8.3 This happened at the state highway. 8.4 The highway intersects Main Street. 9.1 The pack leaned to the right. 9.2 The pack followed his lead. 9.3 It accelerated toward the open road. 9.4 It accelerated toward a horizon. 9.5 The horizon was in the distance. 10.1 Exhaust ripped the air. 10.2 The exhaust was from the motorcycles. 10.3 The exhaust was like an insult. 10.4 It took all day to heal. Writing Tip Try using (but not overusing) phrases like rapping their pipes. See "Variety in Sentences" in Appendix B, page 224*227. Using "Motorcycle Pack" as a model, narrate a brief dramatic incident where you were an observer, taking in the scene. O You may think of writing as communication. But many writers see what they do as a path, one that leads from the inside out. 1.1 Writing seems simple in theory. 1.2 A person has something to say. 1.3 A person puts down a series of sentences. 1.4 The sentences are like beads on a string. 2.1 But observation of writers reveals something. ping their te a brief le. see what Intermediate Combining 85 2.3 The writers are skilled. 2.4 Things are often more complex than simple. 3.1 Straight lines may connect points in geometry. 3.2 Writers often work in zigzag fashion. 3.3 They follow an internal logic. 3.4 The logic is based on hunches. 3.5 The logic is based on discoveries. 4.1 Their craft is frequently messy. 4.2 Their craft is usually unpredictable. 4.3 Their craft is rarely preplanned in detail. 5.1 They typically regard writing as a process. 5.2 The process is for uncovering meanings. 5.3 The process is for inventing meanings. 5.4 The process is for clarifying meanings. 5.5 The process is not just for expressing them. 6.1 They know one thing from experience. 6.2 Words do more than dress up ideas. 6.3 Words do more than serve as a vehicle. 7.1 Words enable them to think with depth. 7.2 Words enable them to think with precision. 7.3 The words are put on paper. 7.4 The words are carefully revised. 8.1 Writing is often like a path. 8.2 The path is a means to meaning. 8.3 It helps writers educate themselves. 8.4 It helps writers nourish their spirits. Writing Tip Try using colons and dashes in clusters 1 and 6 to see which punctuation mark is more effective. /rlMvQJ/fOit According to this paragraph, writing is like a path. In your own writing, describe in some detail how writing is like one of the following: fire, ice, a bridge, an arrow, a guitar. 86 Unit 2 O Cultural Diversity Many literature anthologies today reflect a commitment to ethnic and cultural diversity. What rationale supports this trend? 1.1 America has always been a dynamic country. 1.2 It draws strength from its diversity. 1.3 Diversity is a mix of ethnic types. 2.1 This fact is increasingly obvious. 2.2 Population demographics have changed. 23 Minorities have asserted their voices. 2.4 Their voices are distinctive. 3.1 Americans value the dignity of individuals. 3.2 Americans value the worth of individuals. 3.3 Our school programs should include literature. 3.4 The literature reflects many cultures. 4.1 We celebrate our diversity. 4.2 We also acknowledge commonalities. 5.1 Hispanic voices reflect a culture. 5.2 The culture is highly integrated. 5.3 The culture is rich in traditions. 5.4 The culture looks toward the future. 6.1 Black literature offers much to readers. 6.2 It is often a literature of eloquence. 6.3 The eloquence is passionate. 6.4 It is often a literature of struggle. Wri and I 7.1 Native Americans have much to teach us. 7.2 Their perspective urges us to remember history. 7.3 It urges us to protect the environment. 7.4 It urges us to seek spiritual meanings. l cont Intermediate Combining hnic and 8.2 Asian-Americans sometimes straddle two worlds. 8.3 They define themselves culturally. 8.4 They define themselves politically. Writing Tip In clusters 1 and 6, try redefining the key words (diversity and literature) with follow-up phrases. Should colleges require students to read the literary contributions of groups other than their own? Why or why not? Unit 2 3 Book Review African-American writer Ralph Ellison is one of the giants of American literature. Here's the beginning of a DQok review, 1.1 Invisible Man is Ralph Ellison's novel. 1.2 The novel is brilliantly written. 1.3 It records a journey from innocence. 1.4 It records a journey to experience. 1.5 The journey is painful. 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 2.1 In it a hero becomes aware of his color. 2.2 The hero is African-American. 2.3 A hero learns of his invisibility to whites. 2.4 The whites control his life. Writi See "\ 3.1 This awareness occurs gradually. 3.2 It occurs through seven episodes. 3.3 The episodes are confrontations. 3.4 The confrontations are violent. / to disc movie. 4.1 The first is the "Battle Royal." 4.2 The Battle Royal is a boxing match. 4.3 The match is staged to entertain whites. 4.4 The whites are sadistic. Have >
view o

5.1 The hero is blindfolded.
5.2 He is forced to fight with other blacks.
5.3 The blacks are his friends.
5.4 They have also been blindfolded.

6.1 He is goaded by fear.
6.2 He is goaded by taunts from the crowd.
6.3 He is goaded by his own pain.
6.4 He lashes out at his opponents.
63 His opponents hit back in response.

2 2 2 2

Intermediate Combining


7.1 His humanity is denied by whites.
7.2 The hero becomes an animal.
7.3 The animal is cornered.
7.4 The animal is fighting for its life.

8.1 His victory gift is a briefcase.
8.2 The gift is ironic.
8.3 The briefcase symbolizes his education.
8.4 It marks the beginning of his self*awareness.
Writing Tip For sentence variety, try opening cluster 6 with goaded. See "Variety in Sentences" in Appendix B, pages 224-227.
This review, while incomplete, shows one approach to discussing literature. Begin your own review of a poem, story, book, or movie. Focus on what the hero or heroine learns.
Have you read literature produced by Mexican-Americans? Here's an over¬view of creative work you might like to look into.
LI Chicano authors produce poetry.
1.2 The poetry is superb.
1.3 They produce novels.
1*4 The novels are exciting.
1*5 They produce short stories,
1.6 The short stories are engaging.
2.1 Gary Soto has written wonderful books.
2.2 He is a Chicano poet.
2.3 He is well known for clear writing.
2.4 His writing deals with everyday life.
2.5 One of the books is titled Black Hair.

90 Unit 2

3.1 Sandra Cisneros achieved recognition.
3.2 Her recognition was widespread.
3.3 She published The House on Mango Street,
3.4 This presents forty-four vignettes.
3.5 The vignettes are keenly observed.
3.6 These are from a feminine perspective.

Someti Have y

4.1 Another popular novelist is Rudolfo Anaya.
4.2 He has written several Chicano books.
4.3 The books include Bless Me, Ultima.
4.4 It won the Premio Quinto Sol in 1971.
4.5 The books include The Heart of Azthxn.

5.1 Anaya also wrote The Silence of Llano,
5.2 This is a fine collection of stories.
5.3 The stories have varied settings.
5.4 Many high school readers will enjoy them.

6.1 Chicano literature is so rich.
6.2 Chicano literature is so varied.
6.3 You may want to consult your librarian.
6.4 You may want to consult Chicano Literature,
6.5 This is a reference book by Charles Tatum.
In clusters 2, 5, and 6, practice making appositives— phrases that describe the nouns they follow.
(Kv-itation Using this paragraph as a model, introduce readers to another type of literature—that of black Americans, Native Americans, Asian-Americans, or some other group.


Intermediate Combining 91
0 Big Ada
Sometimes an unforgettable character touches your life and changes it. Have you known a person like that?
1.1 Every town has drifters.
1.2 The drifters come and go.
1.3 They rarely affect people's lives.
1.4 Such was not the case with Big Ada.

2.1 She was the town's local character.
2.2 She lived in an apartment over a tavern.
2.3 She sang old folk songs for meals there.
2.4 She strummed her guitar for meals there.

3.1 People called her a "free spirit."
3.2 No one knew her real name.
3.3 No one knew her age.
3.4 No one new anything about her.

Unit 2
4.1 Her apparel was practical.
4.2 Her apparel was unconventional.
4*3 She wore a fringed leather jacket.
4.4 She wore a cowboy hat with a high crown.
4.5 She wore welhfaded denim jeans.
4.6 She wore pointed boots.

5.1 And her routine was always the same.
5.2 Her routine was in the afternoons.
5.3 She roamed the town on foot.
5.4 She ended up in front of the drugstore.
5.5 She talked to neighborhood children there.
5.6 She listened to their adventures.

6.1 There she sang their requests.
6.2 She told them stories.
6.3 The stores were richly detailed.
6.4 She helped them sort out their troubles.
6*5 Their troubles were momentary.
7.1 Ada was warm and jocular.
7.2 Ada was a natural teacher.
7.3 Then she left without a trace.
7.4 No one knew why.

8.1 The sheriff found only one clue.
8.2 It was in a trash basket in Ada's room.
8.3 It was a scrap of napkin.
8.4 The napkin was crumpled.

9.1 On it was drawn a lone figure.
9.2 The figure seemed trapped in a cage.
9.3 The cage was boxlike.
9.4 The cage had bars.

10.1 People wondered about this.
10.2 What did the box symbolize?
10.3 What did the bars symbolize.
10.4 What did the figure symbolize?
10.5 Their questions remain unanswered.

Intermediate Combining 93 Writing Tip In cluster 4, check your punctuation of items in a series.
Big Ada was—and perhaps still is—a real person. What might she have secretly written about her reasons for leaving?
O Moral Dilemma
Moral dilemmas surround us—in sexual relationships and at tax time, for example. But what about the dilemma the soldier faces?
1.1 A dilemma is a problem.
1.2 The problem has two solutions.
1.3 Both solutions have consequences.
1.4 The consequences are negative.

2.1 The Nuremberg war trials followed World War II.
2.2 The trials posed a dilemma for individuals.
2.3 The individuals were thoughtful.
2.4 The individuals were all over the world.

3.1 The trials judged Nazi officers.
3.2 The officers participated in mass executions.
3.3 Six million Jews were executed.
3.4 The Jews were in German concentration camps.
4.1 The prosecution argued this.
4*2 The officers were guilty of crimes,
4.3 The crimes were against humanity.
4.4 The officers had a moral responsibility.
4.5 The responsibility was to the human race.

5.1 The defense argued this.
5.2 The officers were not personally responsible.
5.3 They were carrying out military orders.
5.4 The orders were from Hitler's high command.

94 Unit 2

6.1 Many officers were found guilty of war crimes.
6.2 They were sentenced to death or imprisonment.
6.3 Nuremberg raised basic moral questions.
6.4 All soldiers must face these questions today.

7.1 Should individuals disobey orders?
7.2 The individuals are in the military.
7.3 The individuals thereby risk punishment.
7.4 The punishment is from superiors.
7.5 Should individuals follow orders?
7.6 The orders conflict with personal values.

2, 2. 2. 2.
3. 3. 3. 3. 3.

8.1 Let's consider this dilemma more carefully.
8.2 The dilemma is stark and simple.
8.3 This is to provide one person's response.

4. 4. 4. 4. 4.

Writing Tip Try opening cluster 6 with because as a connecting word, This subordinator applies to sentences 6.1 and 6.2.
War legalizes killing. But under what circumstances, in your view, would a soldier be morally justified in disobeying the orders of superior officers? Continue the discussion.
3 Crucial Pass
Games are sometimes decided in the last few seconds—with one play left. What's the most exciting sports event you ever witnessed?
1.1 The quarterback glanced left and right.
1.2 The quarterback barked sharp signals.
1.3 The quarterback took the snap.
1.4 The quarterback dropped straight back.
I.'S The ball was tucked against his thieh.

5, 5. 5, 5. 5
6 6 6
7 7 7 7 7
8 8 8

Intermediate Combining 95
2.1 He wheeled to the right.
2.2 He feinted a handoff to the halfback.
2.3 The halfback was slanting off tackle.
2.4 He then circled into a pocket of blockers.
2.5 The pocket was protective.

3.1 The halfback crashed into the line.
3.2 His body was crouched.
3.3 His knees were churning and lifting.
3.4 The quarterback glanced downfield.
3.5 He felt his fingers tighten on the football.

4.1 The tight end had come across the line.
4.2 He had headed for the defensive linebacker.
4.3 The linebacker was burly.
4.4 The linebacker was dropping back.
4.5 His hands were up.

ing word.
nstances, orders of

5.1 The end had faked to the outside.
5.2 The end had slowed down dramatically.
5.3 The end had taken a backward glance.
5.4 Then he had spurted suddenly up the middle.
5.5 He had left the defender behind.

6.1 The quarterback pumped the ball twice.
6.2 The quarterback watched the downfield action.
6.3 The end changed pace.
6.4 The end broke into the clear.

play left.

7.1 Now the end was in the open.
7.2 He was angling toward the goal line.
7.3 The football was lofting into a blue sky.
7.4 It was a perfectly thrown spiral.
7.5 He would catch it on a dead run.

8.1 The end's fingers were outstretched.
8.2 The end followed the ball's trajectory.
8.3 The trajectory was descending.

96 Unit 2
8.4 The end gathered it in with a leap.
8.5 The end headed for a homecoming victory.
8.6 The victory was never to be forgotten.
Writing Tip To make absolute phrases, delete was and were in sen-tences 3.2 and 3.3. Then combine.
Describe what happened at the victory celebration. Or write about a memorable victory (or loss) you have known.



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Unit 3

Say the word writing, and most of us picture black squiggles of print on a white background. What matters to us is an orderly sequence of sentences marching left to right and down the page. We rarely think about the white space that surrounds sentences. After all, why is that important?
But imagine, for a moment, the existence of space^absorbing aliens that have just erased all the white space in the textbooks you've worked so hard to buy. What you would face, of course, are sentences run together in solid black rectangles of text—page after page, without paragraph breaks or headings. Under such unhappy circumstances, studying could become a real chore.
In this unit of advanced combining, we focus on paragraphs—what they are, why they're important, and how you can write them more successfully. You can learn more about this topic by reading Appendix B, "Sentence and Paragraph Strategies," which contains more information on paragraph organization and packaging (page 221).

differ in th you'd packs
By In ot logic; seque defin some
He The pie, opini argur
what his o

Let's think for a moment about paragraphs, just to remind ourselves what they are and how they work. As you look at the paragraphs on this page, for example, you see that indention—a bit of white space—introduces each set of sentences. Why? Because readers need visual rests from time to time. Paragraphs break up the flow of writing just as pauses break up the flow of speech.
Equally important, however, paragraphs help a writer shift to a different voice (for example, in dialogue) or to a new idea. Each paragraph provides a way of grouping (or clustering) related sentences. Therefore, you might think of each paragraph as a "chunk" of meaning—a visual "package" for sentences. It is by skillfully grouping (or packaging) sentences that writers organize and advance what they want to say.
To further understand these points, you might think of paragraphs as plastic packaging wrap—the see'through stuff for food storage. Imagine, for a moment, that you want to organize leftover meats and cheeses in the bottom section of your old refrigerator after a party. You'd probably begin by putting meats and cheeses in different packages. After all, it's hard to imagine any logical reason for putting slices of turkey, beef, and ham in the same package with slices of cheddar, gouda, and Swiss cheese.
In our imaginary refrigerator, if you had just a few slices of meat, you'd
«-^UrtUl.r ^rt^U^rTd t-Uom t-^rY^t-Kf-r* nriwpwpr if vnn nan several slices of each

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Advanced Combining 101
int on a different cheeses. If you had one or two slices of each, you might put them
mtences in the same package, just for convenience. But if you had several of each,
he white you'd probably package them into separate groups. The whole point of
packaging is to work with what's on hand and make it easily accessible.
ens that By analogy, the principles described above also work with paragraphing.
so hard In other words, paragraphs organize writing by packaging sentences into
in solid logical, easily accessible groups. These visual chunks of meaning can be
reaks or sequenced, rearranged, split apart, or combined. Simply put, there's no set
ne a real definition or "form" for paragraphs. Some paragraphs are short, others long;
some are loosely organized, others highly structured.
lat they However, a paragraph is more than a random collection of sentences.
essfully. The sentences in a paragraph usually have a common purpose—for exam-
nee and pie, to describe a place, narrate an action, explain an idea, or argue an
iragraph opinion. Of course, the longer the description, narration, explanation, or
argument, the more that paragraphing will come into play. The key to successful paragraphing, when all is said and done, is your ability to see what goes with what and to put yourself in the reader's shoes, reading with his or her eyes, as well as your own.
as what
:ach set
D time. Exercises in Unit 3 develop your ability to make paragraphs and to organize
flow of them into effective sequences. Each SC exercise is composed of two sepa¬
rate (but related) paragraphs on the same topic. By combining sentences as
ifferent usual, you'll construct two paragraphs in a larger composition. You may
ivides a work either on your own or with others as you do the sentence combining.
might After constructing paragraphs from the given sentences, you can begin
ge" for creating paragraphs of your own. Your basic task is to tie everything
writers together into an interesting multiparagraph paper. Read the Invitation that
follows each half of the total SC exercise; this will give you general
iphs as direction for follow-up writing of your own. You may wish to swap ideas
ne, for with workshop partners before you begin writing.
in the Creating paragraphs in this way stimulates your thinking and also helps
igin by you solve basic problems in sequencing and organization. Instead of facing
lard to all the tasks of writing at once, you can focus your energies—-taking time,
in the for example, to compare your paragraphs with those written by your work¬
shop partners. Also, advanced work in combining helps you think strategic
, you'd catty about writing.
)f each What is a strategic approach? Thinking strategically means worrying less

102 Unit 3
after all, that provide a reader with "chunks" of meaning. Put another way, a strategic writing approach, like an aerial view, helps you see and under¬stand the Big Picture. When you're concerned only about individual sen¬tences—and therefore not thinking strategically—you can find yourself stuck with a ground-level perspective, one that limits your horizons.
It's important to understand here that you may alter the content of SC paragraphs or rearrange them to suit your emerging purposes. This is advanced combining, so anything goes. Try to think strategically as you create generalizations, link paragraphs together, or develop examples to support a position. Ask yourself: What would make sense here? How can I accomplish this? Where will this take the reader?
Remember to check Appendix B (page 221) for additional ideas on paragraph organization and paragraph packaging.
Z> Classroom Crisis
Directions Combine sentences to create the first of four paragraphs. Then work on the Invitation below for the second paragraph. "School Reform" follows this exercise.
1.1 The United States has long been a world leader.
1.2 This is because of its education system.
1.3 Standards now appear to be slipping.

2.1 Teachers call for homework.
2.2 The teachers are frustrated.
2.3 Many students simply shrug.
2.4 Many students make up excuses.

3.1 This scene is increasingly common.
3.2 It occurs in American high schools.
3.3 They once stood as symbols of excellence.
4.1 Many American students don't work very hard.

Advanced Combining 103

4.3 This is according to researchers.
4.4 They have studied homework patterns.

5.1 Only 26 percent study from one to two hours.
5.2 Only 12 percent study over two hours.
5.3 These percentages are per night.

6.1 Two-thirds study for less than an hour.
6.2 This is each night.
6.3 Many do not study at all.

7.1 U.S. students do get high marks in one activity.
7.2 The high marks are consistent.

104 Unit 3

8.1 They watch TV three or four hours each day.
8.2 They spend 15,000 hours in front of the tube,
8.3 This is from grade 1 through grade 12.
8.4 This compares with 13,000 hours in school.

3 3 3 3

9.1 Critics of education contend something.
9.2 Students elsewhere develop their minds.
9.3 Many American kids let theirs turn to mush.
Writing Tip For clusters 1 and 9, try several connectors—but, yet, however, while, although—before settling on one. Check your punctuation.

Use your own observations to explain—from an in-sider's point of view—why many American high school students neglect their academic homework.
O School Reform
Directions "Classroom Crisis" precedes this exercise. Combine sen¬tences to create the third of four paragraphs. Then work on the Invitation below for the fourth paragraph.

1.1 Knowledge is the key to survival.
1.2 The world becomes a global village.
1.3 The village is interdependent.


2.1 Mediocrity threatens our future security.
2.2 Mediocrity threatens our economic position.
2.3 The mediocrity is in educational standards.

reform partne

Advanced Combining 105
3.1 There are many ways to raise standards.
3.2 The standards are for high school students.
3.3 One possible approach is to establish tests.
3.4 The tests are for college admission.

4.1 This approach works in many other countries.
4.2 The countries include Japan.
4.3 The countries include Germany.
4*4 They are noted for educational excellence.

ut} yet, uation.

5.1 Our present college system has its good points.
5.2 The system emphasizes "open admissions."
5.3 Many students don't take it seriously.
5.4 They simply glide through high school.

an tn-neglect

6.1 They face college-level work.
6.2 They are often rudely awakened.
6.3 They do not possess the requisite knowledge.
6.4 They do not possess the requisite skills.
6.5 They are forced to drop out.

7.1 Dreams crumble quickly.
7.2 They are not built on firm foundations.

8.1 Such tests will not solve school problems.
8.2 They may encourage students to study harder.
8.3 They may help prepare America for the future.
Writing Tip In cluster 5, try however as a connector; this connector should be preceded by a semicolon (;) and followed by a comma.
invitation Write about a second possible approach to school reform that addresses the "Classroom Crisis." Share your text with a writing partner, and use his or her feedback to revise.

106 Unit 3
O Black Music
Directions Combine sentences to create the second of four paragraphs. Then work on the Invitation below for the first paragraph. "Copycats" follows this exercise.
1.1 Music has been shaped by black musicians.
1.2 The music is in the twentieth century.
1.3 The shaping has been irrevocable.

2.1 Ragtime became popular 100 years ago.
2.2 The blues became popular 100 years ago.
2.3 This was thanks to Afro-Americans.
2.4 They defined these new sounds.
2.5 They refined these new sounds.

3.1 Improvisation subsequently led to jazz.
3.2 Historians now view jazz as an expression.
3.3 The expression was uniquely American.
3.4 Jazz was a form developed by blacks.

to ere;

Advanced Combining 107

agraphs. opycats"

4.1 Then came rhythm and blues.
4.2 Rhythm and blues was during the 1940s.
4.3 Then came rock and roll.
4.4 Rock and roll was during the 1950s.
4.5 Then came soul music.
4.6 Soul music was during the 1960s.

5.1 The 1970s saw further expressions.
5.2 The 1980s saw further expressions.
5.3 The expressions were Afro-American.
5.4 The expressions included funky disco.
5.5 The expressions included reggae.
5.6 The expressions included rap music.

6.1 Each form had its musical roots.
6.2 The roots were in black communities.

7.1 Afro-Americans invented these sounds.
7.2 White musicians quickly copied them.
7.3 White musicians exploited their potential.
7.4 The potential was commercial.

Writing Tip To make an appositive—a renaming phrase like this— focus on cluster 3, sentence 3.4.
Develop a vivid character sketch of your favorite black musician—in action—to introduce "Black Music."
Z> Copycats
Directions "Black Music" precedes this exercise. Combine sentences to create the third of four paragraphs. Then work on the Invitation below for

108 Unit 3
1.1 Copycats included Elvis Presley.
1.2 Copycats included the Beatles.
1.3 Copycats included the Rolling Stones.
1.4 The copycats were prominent.
1.5 All of them enjoyed great success.

2.1 Today's imitators are a diverse group.
2.2 The group includes Vanilla Ice.
2.3 The group includes New Kids on the Block.
2.4 The group includes Mariah Carey.
2.5 The group includes Michael Bolton.

3.1 Rap music clearly illustrates something.
3.2 Rap music is a form of street poetry.
3.3 It was born in urban ghettos during the 1980s.
3.4 "Imitation is the highest form of flattery."
4*1 M.C. Hammer popularized rap.
4*2 L.L. Cool j popularized rap.
4.3 Heavy D popularized rap.
4.4 Vanilla Ice imitated the new sound.
4.5 Vanilla Ice put it at the top of pop charts.

5.1 Vanilla Ice even adopted a black haircut.
5.2 Vanilla Ice even adopted lined eyebrows.
5.3 These were to complement Running Man moves.
5.4 The moves were borrowed from Hammer's shows.

6.1 Such imitations of black music will continue.
6.2 Few can copy Michael Jackson's "Moonwalk."
6.3 Few can copy Janet Jackson's performances.
6.4 The performances are inimitable.

7.1 And fans accept no substitutes for Prince.
7.2 Fans accept no substitutes for Whitney Houston.
7.3 They are in a class by themselves.
Writing Tip In clusters 4 and 6, try several connectors—but, yet,

Advanced Combining 109
Write a conclusion for "Black Music" and "Copy-cats" to explain why such borrowing may have occurred. Share your text with a writing partner, and use his or her feedback to revise.
0 A Right to Die
Directions Combine sentences to create the second of four paragraphs. 11 en work on the Invitation below for the first paragraph. "Final Rights" lullows this exercise.
1.1 Our Constitution guarantees certain rights.
1*2 The rights are inalienable.
1.3 It does not guarantee "the right to die."
2.1 Doctors take the Hippocratic oath.
2.2 The oath obliges them to sustain life.
2.3 The oath obliges them to eschew mercy killing.

ut, yet,

110 Unit 3

3.1 Hospitals sometimes demean patients.
3.2 The patients are terminally ill.
3.3 The patients want to die with dignity.
3.4 The hospitals hook up life-support systems.
3.5 The hospitals administer unwanted drugs.

4.1 These three facts cause concern.
4.2 The concern is among many Americans.
4.3 The Americans want to exercise choice.
4.4 The choice is in how they live.
4*5 The choice is in how they die.

tences below

5.1 Technology may produce unwanted outcomes.
5.2 "Living wills" are increasingly popular.
5.3 "Living wills" specify personal decisions.
5.4 The decisions are for terminal health care.

6.1 Changing values are also seen in surveys.
6.2 The values are American.
6.3 The values concern "the right to die."
6.4 The surveys sample public opinion.

7.1 Many Americans see suicide as an option.
7.2 The percentage is two-thirds, to be exact.
7.3 The option is defensible.
7.4 The option is for patients.
7.5 They have "no hope for improvement."
7.6 This is according to a 1990 Gallup poll.
Writing Tip In cluster 5, try because as a sentence opener, and use that with sentence 5.3. In cluster 7* try a pair of dashes with sentence 7.2

2 2 2 2 2
3 3 3 3
4 4
4 4 4
5 5 5

To introduce "A Right to Die" and "Final Rights," develop a paragraph that describes a terminally ill patient in a hospital


Advanced Combining 111

O Final Rights
Directions "A Right to Die" precedes this exercise. Combine sen¬
tences to create the third of four paragraphs. Then work on the Invitation
below for the fourth paragraph.
1.1 Dying has become a complex issue.
1.2 Dying is a basic fact of life.
1.3 The issue is in America.
1.4 This is thanks to advanced technology.

2.1 Medical science can now sustain life.
2.2 The sustenance is for months or years.
2.3 Many families face ethical questions.
2.4 The questions are profound.
2.5 They concern life-support systems,

3.1 Family members often see loved ones.
3.2 The loved ones have no hope of recovery.
3.3 The loved ones linger on in hospitals.
; 3.4 The loved ones linger on in nursing homes.
4.1 Sometimes they are in pain.
4.2 Sometimes they are unconscious.
4.3 They are usually kept alive by machines.
4.4 The machines are sophisticated.
4.5 The machines are expensive.

use that 7.2

5.1 Quality of life is often absent.
5.2 The loved one hovers in limbo.
5.3 The limbo is between life and death.
5.4 Family members watch helplessly.

lights/' lospital

6.1 Machines can soon drain life savings.
6.2 The machines are whirring.
6.3 The machines keep a loved one alive.
6.4 This leaves a bleak financial future.

112 Unit 3
7.1 High technology may sustain life.
7.2 It also prolongs the process of dying.
7.3 Many people now find this objectionable.
Writing Tip For sentence variety, try deleting they are in sentences 4.1 and 4.2. In cluster 7, try while or although as a sentence opener.
Draw conclusions that assert your personal values on this profoundly human issue. Share your text with a writing partner, and use his or her feedback to revise.
O Smoking Facts

Directions Combine sentences to create the second of four paragraphs. Then work on the Invitation below for the first paragraph. "More Smoking Facts" follows this exercise.
1.1 The evidence is undeniable.
1.2 The evidence is scientific.
1.3 Smoking promotes heart disease.
1.4 Smoking promotes cancer.

2.1 Smoking leads to premature deaths.
2.2 The deaths are preventable.
2.3 The deaths are for 350,000 Americans.
2.4 The deaths occur each year.


3.1 Major risks include cancer of the lungs.
3.2 They include cancer of the throat.
3.3 They include cancer of the mouth.
3.4 Cancer of the esophagus is also a threat.


Advanced Combining 113

ices 4.1
ilues on
er, and

4.1 Lung cancer is particularly deadly.
4.2 It is a disease of smokers.
4.3 It kills 90 percent of its victims.

5.1 Smoking also causes heart disease.
5.2 It damages the lining of the arteries.
5.3 It raises blood pressure.
5.4 It contributes to atherosclerosis.
5.5 Atherosclerosis impedes blood flow.

6.1 Heart attacks kill 200,000 smokers.
6.2 This is each year in the United States.
6.3 Many smokers refuse to kick their habit.
6.4 This is even after a heart attack.

7.1 Most smokers are aware of the danger.
7.2 Most smokers are addicted to nicotine.
7.3 Nicotine is a powerful drug.
7.4 The drug stimulates the nervous system.
7.5 Most smokers choose to deny the risks.

graphs. noking

Writing Tip In clusters 4 and 7, try inserting an appositive—a short renaming phrase like this—into the base sentence.

Develop a character sketch or dramatic incident to introduce "Smoking Facts" and "More Smoking Facts."
Z> More Smoking Facts
Directions "Smoking Facts" precedes this exercise. Combine sen-tences to create the third of four paragraphs. Then work on the Invitation

114 Unit 3
1.1 Each day 3000 Americans take up smoking.
1.2 The Americans are mostly teenagers.
1.3 They have heard of its health effects.
1.4 The effects are adverse.

2.1 Adolescents may smoke to gain peer approval.
2.2 They may smoke to express rebelliousness.
2.3 They may smoke simply out of curiosity.

3.1 Modeling is often a major factor.
3.2 Modeling is the emulation of others' behavior.
3.3 The factor contributes to a decision to smoke.

4.1 Young men may choose Marlboro cigarettes.
4.2 They fantasize themselves as rugged.
4.3 They fantasize themselves as handsome.
4.4 This is like the first Marlboro Man.
4.5 The first Marlboro Man died of emphysema.

5.1 Young women may choose Virginia Slims.
5.2 They want to appear good-looking.
5.3 They want to appear sophisticated.
5.4 They want to appear "with-it."
5.5 There is nothing sexy about lung cancer.

6.1 Advertisers work hard to create images.
6.2 The images appeal to teenagers,
6.3 Adolescents are defining their identities.
6.4 Adolescents are defining their life-styles.

7.1 Smokers are shown having lots of fun.
7.2 They look beautiful in the process.

8.1 These images work on teenagers' minds.
8.2 These images team up with social factors.

Advanced Combining 115
Writing Tip To emphasize parallelism, consider using dashes with sentences 4.4 and 5,5. See "Parallelism in Sentences" in Appendix B, pages 221-224.
Write a concluding paragraph for "Smoking Facts" and "More Smoking Facts." Share your text with a writing partner, and use his or her feedback to revise.
O Hypnotic Trance
Directions Combine sentences to create the first of four paragraphs. Then work on the Invitation below for the second paragraph, "Hypnosis Applications" follows this exercise.
1.1 Hypnosis is a condition.
1.2 The condition is trancelike.
1.3 It is usually induced by suggestions.
1.4 ■ The suggestions are verbal,
2.1 Hypnotists employ various techniques.
2.2 These may involve focusing on a voice.
2.3 These may involve focusing on an object.
2.4 These may involve focusing on a mental image.

3.1 Hypnotized subjects appear to be awake.
3.2 They soon enter another state of being.
3.3 The state of being is much like sleep.
3.4 They become responsive to instructions.

4.1 Suggestions work on the subconscious mind.
4.2 The suggestions are subsequent.

116 Unit 3

4.4 This is particularly for motivated subjects.
4.5 The subjects are readily hypnotized.

5.1 Verbal cues can anesthetize the body.
5.2 Hypnotized subjects do not experience pain.

6.1 Subjects can alter heart rate.
6.2 Subjects can alter respiration.
6.3 Subjects can alter stomach acid secretion.
6.4 Subjects can turn on their immune systems.

7.1 Age regression can be induced.
7.2 Hypnotized subjects experience past events.
7.3 The past events are dimly remembered.

8.1 And cancer patients can undergo chemotherapy.
8.2 The cancer patients have been hypnotized.

relive t
this ev< OH Direc tences below i 1. 1. 1. 2. 2. 2. 2, 2. 3. 3. 3. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4.' 5. Advanced Combining 117 Writing Tip In cluster 3, try although as a sentence opener; then try a semicolon 4- however to join sentences. Which do you prefer? Write about a life experience that you would like to icllve through hypnosis. What details can you presently remember about this event? Why would you like to relive it? 0 Hypnosis Applications Dif6CtlOnS "Hypnotic Trance" precedes this exercise. Combine sen' tences to create the third of four paragraphs. Then work on the Invitation below for the fourth paragraph. LI Hypnosis has many positive benefits. L2 Hypnosis does not cure disease. 1.3 Hypnotists do not have magical powers. 2.1 Dentists sometimes hypnotize patients. 2.2 This makes a painkiller unnecessary. 2.3 Some surgeons use hypnotic suggestions. 2.4 The suggestions are after operations. ' 2.5 Their purpose is to reduce bleeding. 3.1 Hypnosis can reduce pain for burn patients. 3.2 Hypnosis can speed recovery for burn patients. 3.3 They get treatment soon after their injury. 4.1 Psychiatrists can use hypnosis as therapy. 4.2 They first help patients explore events. 4.3 The events have been traumatic. 4.4 The events have been repressed. 4.5 They then help them deal with emotions. 4.6 The emotions are triggered by the events. 5.1 Hypnosis has many applications in medicine. 118 Unit 3 6.1 Police officers investigate crimes. 6.2 They sometimes use hypnosis as a tool. 6.3 The tool helps witnesses remember facts. 6.4 The facts include descriptions of criminals. 6.5 The facts include license plate numbers. 7.1 And TV advertisers plan their slogans. 7.2 They plan their songs. 7.3 They plan their visual sequences. 7.4 They use principles of hypnosis. 7.5 They want heightened awareness of messages. 7.6 The messages market their products. Writing Tip In cluster 4, try a dash for emphasis; in clusters 6 and 7, try a connector like when to create parallelism. See "Parallelism in Sen-tences" in Appendix B, pages 221-224. invitation Write about a TV advertisement whose suggestions "stick in the mind." Why do you think this ad is effective? Share your text with a writing partner, and use his or her feedback to revise. Z) Shoeshine Boy Directions Combine sentences to create the first of four paragraphs. Then work on the Invitation below for the second paragraph. "Executive Traveler" follows this exercise. 1.1 The Boy is a grown man. 1.2 The man works at the airport. 1.3 The man shines shoes six days a week. 1.4 This is all he knows as a trade. 2.1 He is Caucasian. ^ -■» T I - 1 , 1 1_ _ A /*_; A ■ Advanced Combining 119 2.3 He might also be Asian. 2.4 He might also be Hispanic. 3.1 He reaches for his cleaning brush. 3.2 He makes soapy circles on the leather. 3.3 He wipes its surface clean. 4.1 This preparation is complete. 4.2 He selects his wax. 4*3 He skims a film with his fingertips. 4.4 He applies it with quick strokes. 4.5 The strokes are back and forth. 5.1 His tongue darts between his teeth. 5.2 This is part of his routine. 5.3 The routine is "polished." 5.4 The routine is mindless. 6.1 He brushes the leather with open palms. 6.2 This is to work up a dull shine. 6.3 He then squeezes a rag dry. 6.4 He winds it in tight loops. 6.5 The loops are around his index finger. 6.6 This is to scoop crescents of dark wax. 7.1 The shine begins to come. 7.2 It moves up through the film. 7.3 It reflects the neon lights. 7.4 The Boy reaches for a clear wax. 7.5 This is the finishing touch. 8.1 He finally reaches for a cloth. 8.2 The cloth is soft and stained. 8.3 He flicks it over the shoes. 8.4 He whips the shine to attention. 9.1 The cloth pops between his hands. 9.2 The cloth crackles between his hands. 9.3 His hands are nervous and long-fingered. 120 Unit 3 Writing Tip Consider the word although as an opener for cluster 2 and when as an opener for cluster 4. Write a second paragraph that explains how certain types of work can demean people rather than uplift them. O Executive Traveler Directions "Shoeshine Boy" precedes this exercise. Combine sen¬tences to create the fourth of four paragraphs. Then work on the Invitation below for the third paragraph. LI The Executive closes his .Wall Street Journal 1.2 The Executive descends from his chair. 1.3 His chair is thronelike. 1.4 He gives the Boy a nod. 2.1 He is African-American. 2.2 He might also be Caucasian. 2.3 He might also be Asian, 2.4 He might also be Hispanic. 3.1 He does not comment on the shine. 3.2 He fishes for his wallet. 3.3 The Boy waits. 4.1 Payment will be met with a stare. 4.2 The payment includes no tip. 4.3 The stare is surly and disgusted. 4.4 It is meant to be insulting. 5.1 Payment with tip will be met with a smile. 5.2 Payment with tip will be met with a wink. 5.3 Payment with tip will be met with wishes* Wr com worl Dir The folk Advanced Combining 121 ter 2 anJ ' certain 6.1 The Boy reaches for his change. 6.2 His reach is reluctant. 6.3 The Executive checks his watch. 6.4 The Executive heads for the airport lobby. 7.1 He moves smoothly down the hallway. 7.2 His shoes gleam beneath his stride. 7.3 His stride is confident. 8.1 The Boy turns back to his wax. 8.2 The Boy turns back to his rags. 8.3 The Boy readies himself for more shoes. ne sen-vitation Writing Tip Try using (but not overusing) participle phrases as you combine clusters 6, 7, and 8. Create a third paragraph that argues for respecting the work of others, regardless of differences in status. O Before AIDS Directions Combine sentences to create the first of four paragraphs. Then work on the Invitation below for the second paragraph. "Black Death" follows this exercise. 1.1 People have always feared the unknown. 1.2 It is difficult to appreciate the fear. 1.3 The fear accompanied bubonic plagues. 1.4 They were during medieval times. 1.5 They were during the Renaissance. 1.6 They were during the nineteenth century. 2.1 The disease was called the Black Death. 122 Unit 3 r 2.3 This was because of the disease's effects. 2.4 The effects were on the human body. 3.1 Fever marked the Black Death. 3.2 Chills marked the Black Death. 3.3 Swelling marked the Black Death. 3.4 The swelling was severe. 3.5 The swelling was of the lymph nodes. 4.1 The disease was accompanied by hemorrhages. 4.2 The hemorrhages made dark spots. 4.3 The spots were on the skin. 4.4 The disease had a mortality rate. 4.5 The mortality rate was extremely high, 5.1 Hundreds of thousands died in Europe. 5.2 Hundreds of thousands died in England. 5.3 This was during the fourteenth century. 6.1 The Black Death broke out again. T Advanced Combining 123 6.3 Lyons lost half its population. 6.4 Milan lost 86,000 people. 6.5 The Venetian Republic lost 500,000. 7.1 The plague swept the continent. 7.2 This was during the eighteenth century. 7.3 It killed about 60,000 in Moscow. 7.4 It killed about 215,000 in Brandenburg. 7.5 It killed about 300,000 in Austria. 8.1 The last outbreak occurred in China. 8.2 This was during the nineteenth century. 8.3 The plague was then carried far and wide. 8.4 Oceangoing vessels embarked from seaports. 8.5 It finally reached San Francisco in 1902. Writing Tip Use a transitional expression like similarly or in the same way to introduce the second paragraph, which will deal with AIDS. /* In a comparison, show how AIDS—much like the bubonic plague of earlier centuries—has become the feared epidemic of our rime. O Black Death Directions "Before AIDS" precedes this exercise. Combine sentences to create the third of four paragraphs. Then work on the Invitation below for the fourth paragraph. 1.1 The Black Death had a cause, 1.2 It was not understood until 1894. 124 Unit 3 2.1 Only then did people understand something. 2.2 The disease was carried by fleas. 2.3 The fleas lived on rats. 2.4 The fleas lived on other rodents. desci partr 3.1 Something is unfortunate. 3.2 The infected fleas have now spread. 3.3 The spread has been over the western United States. 3.4 The spread has even been into Canada, 4.1 Thirty-eight rodents now carry the fleas. 4*2 The rodents are wild. 4.3 They include rats. 4*4 They include squirrels. 4.5 They include prairie dogs. 4*6 They include rabbits. 4.7 They include meadow mice. OJ **»***»*• i Din Thei Facts 5.1 Control of rodents is exercised in areas. 5.2 The areas are susceptible to epidemics. 5.3 The susceptibility is potential. 5.4 The areas are especially the cities. 6.1 DDT was once used to control the fleas. 6.2 DDT has serious side effects. 6.3 The effects are damaging to life. 6.4 The effects are damaging to the environment. 7.1 The Black Death is still with us. 7.2 It is a legacy from the past. 7.3 It now seems less frightening. 7.4 Its cause is understood. Writing Tip Use a transitional word or phrase to switch focus from the Advanced Combining 125 Write a concluding paragraph (paragraph 4) that describes the cause and spread of AIDS. Share your text with a writing partner, and use his or her feedback to revise. D Alcohol Facts Directions Combine sentences to create the second of four paragraphs. Then work qn the Invitation below for the first paragraph. "More Alcohol Facts" follows this exercise. LI Alcohol is the most widely used drug. 1.2 It is a product of fermentation. 13 The product is natural. 2.1 Teenagers are curious about alcohol. 2.2 About two-thirds of them try it out. 2.3 About one-third develop problems. Dm the 126 Unit 3 3.1 Most youthful drinkers start early. 3.2 The drinkers develop addictions. 3.3 The drinkers get into trouble with police. 3.4 This is often before age thirteen. 4.1 Many are unaware of certain facts. 4.2 Alcohol can damage the brain. 4.3 Alcohol can damage the heart. 4.4 Alcohol can damage the liver. 3l\ ,...«»•*•••* Dire tence belov 5.1 Pregnant women drink alcohol. 5.2 They put unborn children at serious risk. 6.1 Millions of adults drink responsibly. 6.2 Serious problems result from overuse. 6.3 The problems are related to alcohol. 7.1 Alcohol causes 100,000 deaths annually. 7.2 Deaths result from various diseases. 7.3 They include cirrhosis of the liver. 7.4 Deaths result from traffic accidents. 8.1 Fatalities declined during the 1980s. 8.2 They were caused by drunk drivers. 8.3 This was thanks to public pressure. 8.4 Alcohol still contributes to 50,000 deaths. 8.5 Alcohol still contributes to 500,000 injuries. 8.6 These occur each year on our highways. Writing Tip In clusters 3 and 5, try using who as a connector. Do not use commas with these clauses. Develop a character sketch or dramatic incident to introduce "Alcohol Facts" and "More Alcohol Facts." r Advanced Combining 127 O More Alcohol Facts Directions "Alcohol Facts" precedes this exercise. Combine sen¬tences to create the third of four paragraphs. Then work on the Invitation helow for the fourth paragraph. 1.1 The body metabolizes alcohol slowly. 1.2 Nothing can be done to speed the process. 2.1 Running does not sober you up. 2.2 Eating a meal does not sober you up. 2.3 Drinking coffee does not sober you up. 2.4 Taking a shower does not sober you up. 2.5 This is contrary to popular opinion. 3.1 Alcohol has teen carefully studied. 3.2 Basic physiological facts are well known. 4«1 The drug affects the nervous system. 4*2 It impairs judgment. 4.3 It impairs memory. 4*4 It impairs sensory perception. 5.1 It also depresses brain functions. 5.2 The functions integrate behavior. 5.3 It causes jumbled thoughts. 5.4 It causes reduced concentration. Do not 6.1 Alcohol promotes sleepiness. 6.2 It also disrupts sleep patterns. 6.3 It also disrupts dream patterns. lent to 7.1 Alcohol acts as a diuretic. 7.2 It stimulates the kidneys to pass water. 128 Unit 3 8.1 The "hangover" has only one real cure 8.2 It consists of dry mouth. 8.3 It consists of sour stomach. 8.4 It consists of headache. 8.5 It consists of fatigue. 8.6 The cure is the passage of time. Writing Tip In cluster 2, change the verb does to do if you create a compound subject. In clusters 1 and 7, try because as a connector. Write a concluding paragraph for "Alcohol Facts" and "More Alcohol Facts." Share your text with a writing partner, and use his or her feedback to revise. O Genetic Defects Directions Combine sentences to create the first of four paragraphs. Then work on the Invitation below for the second paragraph. "Genetic Counseling" follows this exercise. 1.1 Scientific evidence has accumulated. 1.2 It supports a grim hypothesis. 1.3 The human species is becoming weaker. 1.4 The weakening is genetic. 2.1 Many scientists now believe something. 2.2 Genetic deterioration is inevitable. 2.3 Defective babies now survive. 2.4 The babies once would have perished. Sentence Combining [A Composing Book] {William Strong} (ตอนที่ 1)
Sentence Combining [A Composing Book] {William Strong} (ตอนที่ 2)

(ตอนที่ 1)

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